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Flashcards in Musculoskeletal System Deck (28):
1

Epiphyses

- contains spongy bone
- filled with yellow or red marrow

2

Diaphyses

- contains yellow bone marrow within medullary cavity
- endosteum within medullary cavity

3

Periosteum

- Fibrous membrane covering bone
- contains small BV and osteoblasts → forms inner layer of growing bones
- periosteal fibres penetrate underlying bone → weld structures tgt
- BUT periosteum not firmly attached to underlying bone in kids

4

location of the types of bone in long bones

external compact
internal spongy

5

features of short/fat/irregular bones

- periosteum covers compact bone
- endosteum covers spongy bone inside
- bone marrow b/w trabeculae

6

what consist of the bone tissues

consist of cells, fibres, extracellular matrix

7

bone cells

osteoblasts: builds
osteoclasts: destroy
osteocytes: large inactive mature cells

8

calcification of inorganic extracellular bone matrix

ca, mg, po4 crystals
- contributes to bone hardening/calcification
- effective at resisting stress and mechanical deformation

9

calcification of organic extracellular bone matrix

collagen, mixture of protein/sugar (ground substance)
- adhesion b/w cellular and fibrous components → inc str and resilience of bone

10

microscopic structure of bones

compact bone = 80% mass
- structural units = osteons
- cells cemented → allows delivery of nutrients AND imprisonment of bone cells

spongy bone = 20%
- no haversian system
- but has trabeculae network → inc tensile str
- orientation of network differs according to load and str

11

what structures penetrate through periosteum to bone?

BV and N from periosteum penetrate to bone via Volkmann's canal → connect with Haversian canal

12

vascularity of cartilage

avascular
- chondrocytes receive nutrients & o2 via diffusion

13

types of cartilage

hyaline: cover articular surfaces

fibrous: greatest # of collagen fibres → greatest tensile str (IV discs)

elastic: elastic and firm (external ear)

14

step 1 bone formation

ossification centre appears in fibrous connective tissue membrane
- mesenchymal cells dev into osteoblasts

15

step 2 bone formation

Bone matrix (osteoid) secreted within fibrous membrane
- Oblasts → secrete osteoid → mineralised → trapped Oblasts become osteocytes

16

step 3 bone formation

Woven bone and periosteum forms
- Osteoid accumulate b/w embryonic BV → form network of trabeculae
- Vascularised mesenchyme → condense external of network → becomes periosteum

17

step 4 bone formation

Bone collar of compact bone forms + red marrow appears
- Trabeculae deep to periosteum thickens → forms woven bone collar later replaced with mature lamellar bone
- Spongy bone persist internally
- Vascular tissues → become red marrow

18

bone growth

1) Formation of bone collar around hyaline
- With 1o ossification

2) Cavitation of hyaline cartilage (from 1o ossification

3) Invasion of periosteal bud (containing BV…) + spongy bone

4) Medullary cavity formed, 2o oss center appears in epiphysis (childhood)

5) Ossification of epiphyses

19

bone remodelling with osteoclast and blast

- Oclast → enlarge diameter of medullary
- Oblast → Produce new bone around outside of bone

20

fibrous articulations

- fibrous tissue
- no/little movement
- cranium sutures

21

cartilaginous articulation

- hyaline
- slightly movable
- pubic symphysis/iv discs

22

synovial articulation

- has joint capsule, synovial membrane, articular cartilage (hyaline), menisci, ligaments, bursae
- mobile

23

bone and ageing

childhood + adolescence → osteogen > bone reabs (clast BD bones)

young adult → osteogen = bone reabs

24

what 3 structures form the thin filament

actin + troponin + tropomyosin

25

what form of energy is used for contraction

ATP - aerobic/anaerobic

muscle fibres breaking down creatine phosphate

26

length of electrical impulse of cardiac muscle

longer than skeletal muscle
- does not run low on ATP and does not fatigue

27

EC coupling of SM

Ca from outside cell (no sarcomere and SR)
- binds calmodulin → contraction

28

2 types of SM

multiunit
- many independent single cell units → fine control of contraction (i.e. resp airway, arteries)

single unit
- large continuous sheet
- peristalsis
- i.e. GIT walls