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Flashcards in GIT Deck (38):
1

GIT wall layers

serosa - connective tissue and peritoneum (continuous with parietal peritoneum)

muscularis - alternating direction → peristalsis

submucosa - small glands, BV, N

mucosa - epithelium

2

which salivary glands are the main producer of saliva

sublingual and parotid - 1.5L/day

3

what does the submandibular gland do?

produces mucin

4

what does saliva contain

serous fluid - 99% water → to dissolve bolus for taste (chemoR taste buds only responds to dissolved substances)

muscin - lubricant and glue

5

which branch of ANS innervate inc saliva production

PNS

6

what is the nervous control of peristalsis

controlled by enteric NS
- interstitial cells of cajal (the pacemaker cells)

7

what does the rate of emptying (of food from the stomach) depend on

amount/type of food in stomach
- usually completely empty in 2-6 hours

8

what is the function of HCl in the stomach?

- levels peaks within 1-2hrs after meal
- activate pepsinogen → pepsin
- stimulates duodenum to secrete hormones → release bile + pancreatic juices

9

where are gastric glands found and what cells do they have?

below gastric pits
- chief cells
- parietal cells
- endocrine cells

10

chief cells

secretes pepsinogen → pepsin (breaks down protein)

11

parietal cells

secretes HCl and intrinsic factor
- HCl turns pepsinogen → pepsin
- intrinsic factor → req for abs for vit B12

12

endocrine cells

secretes gastrin → stimulates parietal cells when stomach stretched

secretes ghrelin → stimulates appetite, slow metabolism when stomach not stretched

13

what problems may low dose aspirin cause?

aspirin irreversibly inhibits platelet COX1 → causes peptic ulcers and GI bleeding

14

what is crohn's disease and which part of the GIT is crohn's disease associated with?

is an autoimmune disease → inflam of mucosa and associated with illeum

15

plicae

folds containing villi in SI

16

villi

contians BV and lymphatics
- also contain microvilli

17

microvilli

-sucrase, maltase, lactase

- enteropeptidase
-alkaline phosphatase

secrete digestive enz
- sucrase: sucrose → glucose + fructose

- maltase: maltose → glucose x2

- lactose: lactose → glucose + galactose

- enteropeptidase: activates trypsinogen → trypsin

- alkaline phosphatase: removes phosphates from organic molecules

18

crypts of lieberkuhm

deep pits at the base of villi
- produces → new cells and bacterial enz

19

goblet cells

secrete intestinal juices and mucus

20

difference in function of prox and distal halves of LI

prox → reabs remaining water, na, glucose

distal → prepares and stores solid wastes for elimination

21

unique features of LI

- fat tags (epiploic appendices)
- no villi
mucus producing glands → lubricate faeces
- uneven layer of muscle fibres → taenia coli

22

appendix

- accessory organ of digestive system
- breeding ground for non-pathogenic bacteria
- contains masses of lymphoid tissue (MALT)

23

how of CO does the liver use

33%

24

sinusoids

extend from hepatic veins → drains into central veins
- flow from: lobe → lobule → sinusoids

contains 'kupffer' cells
- hepatic macrophages

25

CCK relation to gallbladder

stimulates gallbladder contraction

26

what are calcified gall stones called

cholelithiasis

27

function of the liver

- store and prod bile
- detox
- metabolise protein, fats, CHO
- stores substances
- maintain oncotic pressure (prod albumin)
- haematopoiesis in fetal dev

28

3 stages of deglutination

1) oral
- vol and forms bolus

2) pharyngeal stage
- invol → bolus pushed down to eso

3) eso stage
- invol → skeletal and SM move bolus down via peristalsis

29

hormonal mech from fats in stomach

gastric inhibitory peptide released in response to fat in duodenum
→ dec peristalsis → slow chyme into duo

30

nervous mech for gastro-motility

enterogastric reflex
- stretch R in duo → sensitive to presence of acid and distension → impulse to medulla → inh PNS, stim SNS → inh gastric peristalsis

31

fat digestion

lipid mixes with water and lecithin → forms micelles → fat becomes water soluble

*lipase also form micelles*

32

site of CHO digestion

by amaylase (in saliva and pancreatic juices)

by sucrase/lactase/maltase → intestinal brush border

33

site of protein digestion

pepsin → gastric juice

trypsin and chymotrypsin → pancreatic juices

peptidase → intestinal brush border

34

site of fat digestion

bile (emulsifier) → liver to gallbladder to pancreas

pancreatic lipase → pancreas

35

physiology of constipation

slow peristalsis in distal colon → extra water abs in intestine → hardened stool

36

physiology of diarrhoea

inc peristalsis → fast movement of chyme → dec water and electrolyte abs → watery stool

37

newborn and GI

- v small stomach (frequent feeds)
- peristalsis inefficient → freq vomit

38

old and GI

- dec GIT activity
- dec digestive juices → less efficient abs
- slow peristalsis → constipation
- changes acinar cells in exocrine pancreas → dec enz
- taste/smell changes → loss appetite → elderly citizens poorly nourished