Flashcards in Infection Deck (188)
How is group M of HIV 1 subclassified!!?
What is the clinical relevance?
A-K - CRF (circulating recombinant forms on co-infection)
West mainly B
Same tx but different response
What is the histological structure of the hiv virus?
SsRNA with reverse transcriptase
What is the lifecycle of HiV
Gp120 binds to CD4
Virus fuses with plasma expelling contents
Reverse transcriptase converts rna to dna
Dna intergrates into host genome
Production of viral mrna and proteins
Caspid assemble and buds from cell
At what point is a hiv infection irreversible?
Once the dna intergrates into the host genome
How long is the incubation period for HiV
What happens at the end of it?
How does hiv seroconversion present?
Only 25% ill enough to attend hcp
Non specific illness, fever, rash, sore throat, lymphadonopathy, headache
How many hiv infected people get seroconversion? What does it mean prognostically?
May be at risk of more accelerated disease course.
What is the term for the period between seroconversion and symptomatic hiv? What may be present?
What may be detectable in a hiv pt undergoing a seroconversion reaction?
Low cd4;cd8 ratio
Circulating viral rna
Viral p24 antigen
What causes symptomatic hiv?
How does it present?
Neurotoxins from hiv, cytokine abnormalities, low immunity
Aseptic meningitis, dementia, polyneuropathy, puritis, anaemia, anorexia, diarrhoea, weight loss ,
What are aids defining illnesses?
Candida of lower airways/oesophagus
What is the hiv core antigen?
What blood test will first show hiv?
Viral p24 antigen
2 to 8 weeks
What IgG tests can be used to detect hiv?
IgG to envelope - takes 3 months to build
IgG to core (p24) - detectible after weeks but lost as disease progresses
How are hiv antigens detected and assessed?
Elisa followed by western blotting
How would you not hiv test a baby of a infected mother?
Using IgG - it crosses the placenta so all babies will be positive
What are the general classes of antiretrovirals?
What is the term for the combination used in. hiv?
Reverse transcriptase inhibitors
What are the subtype of reverse transcriptase inhibitors?
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart)
What is a big side effect associated with NRTIs?
Effect mitochondria so lactic acidosis
What is the lifecycle of HBV?
Attaches to and enters hepatocyte
Looses coat and core enters nucleus
Processing of dna with reverse transcriptase
New virons enter blood
How is hepatic damage caused in hbv?
Immune response against virus
What are the immediate outcomes post infection with HBv? What percentage of patients do which?
Acute infections - clear (89%)
Acute infection - death (1%)
Acute infection - chronic infections (10%
What are the symptoms of acute hbv infection?
What causes death in acute hbv infection?
Fulminant hepatic failure
What age group is more likely to develop a chronic hbv infection?
Children (esp infants)
How can chronic hbv present?
Progressive - cirrhosis - risk of liver carcinoma
How do hbv antibodies change over the course of a disease with recovery?
Initial rise in HBs antigen and HBc IgG
HBs antigen falls
HBs IgG rises
How do hbv antibodies change in a chronic disease?
Rise and maintainance of HBc IgG and HBc antigen
If someone is vaccinated against hbv what antibody would you expect to be high? What would indicate that they had been infected?
If infected HBc antigen and IgG