Infection Flashcards Preview

PPE > Infection > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infection Deck (188)
Loading flashcards...
150

Why are cf patients more at risk of infection?

Lack of mucous clearence
Lung damage (bronchiectasis)
Steroid treatment

151

Why should cf cf contact be reduced?

Environmental psuedomonas tx is amenable to ABX but given time in a cf pt it develops ability to produce biofilm becoming much harder to treat - this can be spread to other cf patients

152

What pathogens are associated with copd exacerbations?

Haemophilus influenzae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, influenza A

153

Why are poorly controlled diabetics more at risk of infection?

Impaired humoural, neutrophil and lymphocyte function
Microvascular damage = poor tissue perfusion = damage
Neuronal damage = not noticing stimuli = damage
Sugar in urine = food for uti

154

What specific infections are associated with diabetes?

Malignant otitis externa
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis
Utis
Ulceration

155

What are risk factors for uti in diabetics?

Increases glucose in urine
Neurogenic bladder that doesn't empty fully

156

What pathogens are prone to infecting diabetic foot ulcers?

Staphylococcus aureus
Streptococcus pyrogenes (beta haemolytic)

157

What is malignant otitis externa?

Otitis externa with psuedomonas aerugenosa that can spread to neighbouring soft tissue and bone

158

What is rhinocerebral mucormycosis?

Mold fungi like aspergillus effecting paranasal sinuses invading blood vessels

159

Does downs syndrome effect risk of infection?

Yes - higher risk of urtis and lrtis due to altered structure of mouth and airways

160

What is an immunodeficiency?

A state in which the immune system is unable to respond appropriately and effectively to infectious microorganisms

161

What immune system deficites (generally) can cause immunodeficiencey

Quantitative
Qualitative

162

What about an infection should make a clinician consider immunodeficiency?

S - severe
P - persistent
U - unusual
R - recurrent

163

Other than infection what are other issues with immunodeficiency?

Linked to autoimmune disease and malignancy

164

What are the categories of primary immunodeficiency? What are each group vulnerable too?

B cell - bacterial infection
T cell - viral (and fungal) infection
Complement - bacterial infection
Phagocyte - bacterial and fungal infection

165

What are the main B cell deficiencies?

Common variable immune deficiency
IgA deficiency
IgG subclass deficiency
Bruton's disease

166

What is CVID?

Common variable immunodeficiency
Inability of B cells to mature into plasma cells
Low igg

167

What is brutons disease?

X linked agammagloblinaemia
Impaired b cell development with low igg and iga

168

Hw do b cell deficiencies present?

Recurrent bacterial urti and lrti
Gi infections
Autoimmune disease
Lyphatic and gastric cancers

169

How do you treat b cell deficiencies

Prophylactic ABX
Ig replacement
Symptomatic management
Avoidance of unnecessary radiation due to cancer risk

170

Give two t cell deficiencies

De georges syndrome
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)

171

What are the problems in de georges syndrome

C - cardiac abnormalities
A - abnormal facies
T - thymic hypoplasia
C - cleft palate
H - hypocalcaemia

172

Tx of de georges syndrome

Cardiac surgery
Calcium
Prophylactic ABX
Bone marrow transplant

173

How do SCID diseases present?

Failure to thrive
Viral and fungal infections (PCP, CMV, VZV, EBV)
Skin and organ abcesses
Low t lymphocytes and decreased b activation so low ig

174

How do you treat SCID?

Reverse barrier nursing
Abx
Bone marrow transplant
Gene therapy

175

How do complement deficiencies present?

Hereditory angioedema (C1 inhibitor deficiency)
Recurrent bacterial infections (C3 deficiency)
Neiserria infection (C5-7 deficiency)

176

What are the phagocyte deficiencies?

Cyclic neutropenia
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency
Chronic granulomatous disease
Failure of phagosome formation

177

What is chronic granulomatous disease?

Lack of respiratory burst

178

How do phagocyte deficiencies present?

Bacterial and fungal infections of the skin, mucous membranes and lungs

179

How are phagocyte deficiencies treated?

Prophylactic ABX
Steroid/interferon gamma (chronic granulomatous disease)
Stem cell transplant