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Flashcards in instrumental conditioning Deck (24):
1

determined whether a behaviour was maintained or eliminated

stamping in and stamping out theory

2

behaviours with positive consequences are stamped in, those with negative consequences are stamped out

law of effect

3

Presentation of a positive reinforcer; increases the frequency of a behaviour.

reward training

4

Presentation of a negative reinforcer; decreases the frequency of a behaviour.

punishment training

5

Removal of a positive reinforcer; decrease in the behaviour being reinforced.

omission training

6

Removal of a negative reinforcer; increase in the response behaviour.

escape training

7

behaviour can be learned without careful guidance by the researcher

autoshaping

8

Signals when a contingency between a response and a reinforcement is “on

discriminative stimulus (SD)

9

is a cue that indicates when the contingent relationship is not valid

S-delta or (S-)

10

based on the number of responses; determines when reinforcement is given.

Ratio Schedule

11

based on the time since the last response that was reinforced.

Interval Schedule

12

conditions that are held constant across trials

Fixed Schedule

13

provided following a variable amount of work/length of time.

Variable Schedule

14

forming new voluntary behaviours that direct goal-centered actions.

instrumental conditioning

15

something that produces satisfaction when received.

Appetitive Stimulus

16

arrival of an aversive stimulus follows a response; decreases the likelihood of that response occurring again.

positive punishment

17

when a response leads to the removal of an appetitive stimulus; decreases the probability of that response occurring again (omission training).

negative punishment

18

changes in the value of a reward lead to shifts in response rate.

contrast effects

19

switching from a high to a low reward leads to a slower response rate.

negative contrast

20

switching from a low to a high reward leads to a faster response rate.

positive contrast

21

must do something a certain amount of times to receive an award

fixed ratio

22

Reinforcement delivered after some random number of responses around a characteristic mean.

variable ratio

23

Reinforcement is delivered following the first response after a set interval or time

fixed interval

24

Reinforcement received at any time; you have an idea of how often reinforcement is likely to come up.

variable interval