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Flashcards in problem solving Deck (23):
1

occurs when a person works from ideas and general information to arrive at specific conclusions

deductive reasoning

2

moves away from specific facts and observations to generalizations and theories

inductive reasoning

3

measures the extent to which repeated testing produces consistent results

reliability

4

measures the extent to which a test is actually measuring what the researcher claims to measuring

validity

5

objects can continue to exist when the child can no longer see them

Object permanence

6

• 0-2 years
• A child will recognize that they can affect change on his environment
• Children begin to purposefully engage with the world, and act with intention
Object permanence

sensorimotor stage

7

the ability to logically order a series of objects

seriation

8

• 2-7 years of age
• egocentric
• unable to see the display from the point of view of someone else
• has difficulty wth seriation tasks
• have difficulty with reversible relationships

preoperational

9

which means that he or she has difficulty understanding the world from a perspective other than his or her own

egocentric

10

• 7-12 years of age
• The child’s schemas are still concrete and based on his or her experiences with the world
• is unable to think in abstract terms or reason based on hypotheses

concrete operational stage

11

• 12+ years
• Children are able to think in abstract terms, work with hypotheses, and do everything else that makes up the range of adult cognitive abilities

formal operational stage

12

a tendency to seek out information that directly supports the hypothesis

confirmation bias

13

our tendency to make decisions based on the information that is most quickly available to us

availability heuristic

14

our tendency to estimate the likelihood of a current example by comparing it to an existing prototype in our mind of what we consider to be the most relevant or typical example of a particular category

representativeness heuristic

15

the cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, reason well, remember important information, and cope with the demands of daily living

intelligence

16

THEORY TO FACT

Deductive reasoning

17

FACT TO THEORY

Inductive reasoning

18

our difficulty seeing alternative uses for common objects

Functioning Fixedness

19

incorporating new information into existing schemas

Assimilation

20

modifying existing schemas to fit incompatible information

Accommodation

21

cognitive limitations prevent humans from being fully rational

Bounded Rationality

22

slow; when we need to make really concentrated decisions

system 2

23

thinking fast

system 1