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Flashcards in language Deck (32):
1

based on random choice rather than any reason or system

Arbitrary

2

we have to talk about this for a while for a specific purpose, but let’s avoid thinking about how awful it is

Euphemism

3

I want you to think about just how awful this is

Dysphemism

4

Mammals: when suddenly injured or confined, emit sudden angry noise to startle attacker
Humans: also triggers language system- aggressive words with negative affect

Rage-circuit theory

5

language influences our thoughts and the way we perceive and experience the world

Whorf-Sapir Hypothesis

6

the smallest unit of sound that contains information; often a word, but some words contain multiple morphemes

morpheme

7

We can break morphemes into its constituent sounds

phonemes

8

the rules that govern how sentences are put together; also known as grammar

syntax

9

refers to the meaning of each individual word

semantics

10

the infant makes a wide range of drawn-out sounds that combine consonants and vowels; often includes rhythm and inflection, so that the infant may sound as though he’s asking a question or involved in a conversation

babbling

11

about one and a half to 6 years; vocabulary increases rapidly and most children have mastered the major aspects of language

language explosion

12

the ability of infants to discriminate between any sounds they’re tested on; includes sounds from non-native languages

Universal Phoneme Sensitivity

13

occur when children apply a rule too broadly, and can occur at the level of meaning or syntax

overextensions

14

occur when children apply a rule to a specific object only

underextensions

15

Noam Chomsky has argued that language develops rapidly due to an innate mechanism

Language Acquisition Theory (LAD)

16

when a forager is successful in finding a source of food, the honeybee returns to the hive, and performs a waggle dance to communicate the location of the food to other bees

the waggle dance

17

4 criteria of language

symbolic, arbitrary associations, productive, rule governed

18

words whose sounds are associated with their meanings

Onomatopoeia

19

Language is designed to use a small number of components to produce and understand a wide range of symbols

productive

20

Allow various languages to use different sounds to label the same item

Arbitrary associations

21

With the limited set of sound combinations and words in a language, a potentially infinite number of expressions can be made, including completely novel expressions

rule-governed

22

The meaning that is produced through the use and combination of certain words and morphemes

semantics

23

the loss of universal phoneme sensitivity, occurs when individuals begin to specialize in a particular language and suggests that this is somewhat inherent but shaped by early experiences such as infant directed speech

perceptual narrowing

24

occurs when someone typically suffered a stroke or head injury that gas damaged areas in the left hemisphere involved in motor control of speech

Foreign Accent Syndrome (FAS)

25

demonstrates understanding of expectations of face-to-face social interaction

still face procedure

26

the understanding and use of appropriate communication, develops through conversational cooing and vocalizing with parents

pragmatics

27

refers to spoken words used to express languages

Expressive vocab

28

refers to the understanding of more complex words and expressions by children that they are not yet able to use

Receptive vocab

29

the understanding of language as symbolic and rule based

metalinguistic awareness

30

Suggests that language abilities are acquired through imitation and operant conditioning, with support from case studies of language deprivation during development

social learning theory

31

Chomsky has suggested the existence of a language acquisition device and basic universal rules for all languages; support comes from the spontaneous development of sign language in deaf children, preference for speech sounds and neurophysiological responses to native languages

Innate Mechanism Theory

32

Nature or nurture is insufficient, both are needed to explain language

Interactionist Theories