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psych 1X03 > memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in memory Deck (42):
1

a subject learns a list of items, words, or pictures.

encoding

2

subjects are tested for their memory of the items presented during the encoding phase

retrieval

3

a subject is asked to freely generate as many items as she can remember

recall test

4

a subject is shown several items and asked to judge whether each item is new or old.

recognition test

5

describes the rapidly decreasing rate of recall over time

the forgetting curve

6

Memory is strongest for items at the beginning and end of a list

serial position curve

7

memory performance is good for items encoded early in the list

primacy effect

8

the last several items on the list have had the least opportunity for rehearsal and transfer to long term memory, yet recall for later items on the list is also good

recency effect

9

the words in a list are read to the subject FASTER than normal

decreased primacy effect

10

the words in the list are read to the subject SLOWER than normal

increased primacy effect

11

the subject must complete a distracting task after hearing the words but before recalling them

decreased recency effect

12

suggests that memory performance depends on the level at which the items are encoded

the levels of processing model

13

the more we try to organize and understand the material, the better we remember it

levels of processing principle

14

memory encodes all aspects of an experience

encoding specificity

15

the ease with which an experience is processed, some experiences are easier than others

fluency

16

judgment tying together causes with effects

attribution

17

concerns how the record of memory is maintained over time. Notably, this record is not fixed and can be modified

storage

18

a key piece of information that has the potential to activate a memory in full.

retrieval cues

19

represents brief, transient perceptual and physical information about immediate experiences and is not limited by attention

sensory memory

20

visual information

iconic memory

21

auditory information

echoic memory

22

refers to the process by which information is organized into sets of familiar groups or categories of items

chunking

23

represents a refined version of short term memory and consists of 3 buffers

working memory

24

storage of information through verbal rehearsal

phonological loop

25

is a new addition to the working memory model; it is thought to temporarily represent and manipulate visual information

visuospatial sketchpad

26

uses other buffers and long term memory to remember and hold online past episodes

episodic buffer

27

responsible for managing and manipulating the buffers

central executive

28

are knowledge structures and expectations built through experiences and memories and aid in navigation

schemas

29

memory for specific facts or episodes; general knowledge or semantic memories

declarative memory

30

implicit and procedural memories, not overtly recalled but apparent in functioning

non-declarative memory

31

cannot remember events that took place shortly before the event/trauma

Retrograde amnesia

32

unable to form new lasting memories

Anterograde amnesia

33

suggests we have 3 stores for memory: sensory memory perceives sensory information which is selectively held online by STM and with rehearsal through STM components may be transferred and stored in LTM

multi-store model

34

are tricks used to make to-be remembered information more relevant and easier to remember

mnemonic strategies

35

suggests memory is enhanced when encoding and retrieval utilize the same or similar processes

Transfer Appropriate Processing

36

can be helpful in reducing interference from irrelevant memories

forgetting

37

suggests forgetting is based on the passage of time, but can only account for STM loss.

Decay theory

38

occurs when knowledge learned prior to a memory prevents its retrieval

Proactive Interference

39

occurs when new knowledge prevents the retrieval of old memories

Retroactive interference

40

occurs when new information is thought to be part of an old memory and false memories are in turn formed

misinformation effect

41

occur when we fail to recall the true origins of memories and often occurs when we attribute familiarity and ease of processing to the source of memories

source monitoring errors

42

is our ability to discriminate false memories from true memories

reality monitoring