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Flashcards in attention Deck (32):
1

The act of attending to an object to select it apart from the unattended objects

Selection

2

refers to our conscious ability to attend to the information that is relevant to our goals.

attention

3

-Involuntary “capture”
-Fast, efficient, and obligatory

Automatic processes

4

-Conscious attention (voluntary)
-Slow, effortful

controlled processes

5

participants remember unattended information

breakthrough

6

items contain matching word and colour dimensions (the word RED is written in the colour red)

congruent

7

items contain mismatching word and colour dimensions (the word BLUE written in the colour green)

incongruent

8

change the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials

Proportion Congruent Manipulation

9

the number of items to search through

set size

10

increase in difficulty as set size increases

set size effect

11

when the object of a visual search is easily found, regardless of set size (easily induced by colour)

pop-out effect

12

even with directed focus, attention limits lead us to miss information
Attention captures a portion of the external world to the internal mind

change blindness

13

have a ‘live’ quality feeling, almost as if a person is looking at a photo taken from that evening and I was very surprised to learn that I was completely wrong about at least one detail

flashbulb memories

14

despite competing background noises, a listener can focus on a single channel and still pick out relevant salient information from the background

cocktail party effect

15

headphones are worn so that one message can be presented to one ear and a different message can be presented to the other ear

dichotic listening paradigm

16

refers to a stimulus-driven mechanism in which attention is captured by salient change in the environment

bottom-up processing

17

you can strategically direct your attention to match your current goals and expectations from past experience through memory

Top-down processing

18

the act by which attention moves across a scene

orienting

19

is obvious because where you are attending is also where you are looking

Overt attending

20

attend to things without looking

covert attending

21

if the time between the onset of the cue and the target is more than about 300 milliseconds (which allows sufficient time to direct an eye gaze), you are actually slower to detect the target at cued locations than at uncued locations

Inhibition of return

22

allow attention to be physically and automatically oriented

Exogenous cues

23

allow attention to be consciously directed by interpretation of cue information

Endogenous cues

24

has been used to model how we search for items in our environment

The visual search paradigm

25

reflects bottom-up capture of attention riven by the salience of the physical properties of the target

The pop-out effect

26

you need to search for 2 distinct features (colour and shape) that characterize the target (the red circle)

Conjunctive search

27

participants are faster at identifying the target in the unaltered old displays, but they are unaware that these displays have been repeated

Implicit memory mechanism

28

demonstrates that when the focus of attention is placed strongly on a particular stimulus, even highly salient stimulus may go unnoticed

Inattentional blindness

29

demonstrates that salient changes in the environment often go unnoticed, even when we are looking for them

Change blindness

30

suggests physical information is filtered before semantic processing, accounting for the dichotic listening task but not the cocktail party effect.

Broadbent’s early selection theory

31

attempted to compensate by suggesting physical information is just attenuated and if relevant may be brought to the focus of attention

Treisman’s attenuation theory

32

suggest filtering only occurs after physical and semantic analysis and only selected information goes on for further processing due to limitations in processing capacity

Late filter models