Instrumental Conditioning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Instrumental Conditioning Deck (28):
1

Instrumental conditioning

Learning the contingency between behaviours and their consequences

2

Thorndike

Put a cat in a puzzle box with a dish of food outside and a lever to open the door

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Stamping in (satisfying effect)

Behaviours with positive consequences get stamped in

4

Stamped out (unsatisfying effect)

Behaviours with negative consequences get stamped out

5

Reward training

Presentation of a positive reinforcer

6

Punishment training

Presentation of a negative reinforcer

7

Omission training

Removal of a positive reinforcer

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Escape training

Removal of a negative reinforcer

9

Autoshaping

Learning without direct guidance, rewards behaviour that may occur spontaneously

10

Successive approximation

Complex behaviour can be broken down into smaller steps which gradually build up to the full response

11

SD

Signals when a contingency is valid

12

S delta

Signals when the contingent relationship is not valid

13

Fixed ratio

Pause and run pattern, ex getting a reward every three times you clean your room

14

Fixed interval

A fixed amount of time, scallop pattern

15

Variable ratio

Straight line, reinforcement is given some random number of responses

16

Variable interval

Reinforcement delivered after random amount of time

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Primary reinforcer

Satisfies biological need

18

Secondary reinforcer

Established through classical conditioning, ex money

19

Observational learning

Just after birth we are able to learn from observing others behaviours

20

Aversive stimulus

Something unpleasant, negative reinforcer

21

Delay in gratification

Ability to delay rewards

22

Chaining

Response is reinforced with the opportunity to perform the next response (similar to higher order conditioning)

23

Contrast effects

Changes in value of reward led to shifts in response rate

24

Negative contrast

Switch from a high reward to a low reward now respond at a slower rate

25

Positive contrast

Responding at a faster rate

26

Continuous reinforcement

Reinforcer follows every correct response made by individual

27

Partial reinforcement

Reinforce follows only some of the responses

28

Mirror neurons

Neurons that responds the same way when performing an action and watching someone perform an action