Flashcards in Research Methods Deck (33):

1

##

Theory

###
General set of ideas about the way the world works

2

## Hypothesis

### Specific prediction about the relationship between the variables involved in the theory

3

## Research method

### Determines the way in which the hypothesis will be measured

4

## Collecting data

### Take measurements of the outcomes of tests

5

## Analyze data

### Understand the data and discover trends or relationships between the variables

6

## Report findings

### Publish articles in scholarly journals

7

## Revise theories

### Incorporate new info into our understanding of the world

8

## Anecdotal evidence

### Evidence gathered from self experience or others

9

## Experiment

### Scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on another

10

## Independent variable

### Variable being manipulated by scientist

11

## Dependent variable

### Variable being observed by scientist

12

## Confounding variable

### Variable other than the independent variable that has effect on the results

13

## Within subjects design

###
One person acts as the control group and the experimental group

This can be time consuming, costly and practice effects may occur

14

## Between subjects design

### One group acts as control group and one acts as experimental

15

## Double blind

### Participants and experimenters don't know which group is which

16

## Subject bias

### Participants actions in an experiment influence the results outside of the manipulations of the experimenter

17

## Blinding

### Participants don't know which group they are in

18

## Experimenter bias

### Actions made by the experimenter intentionally or not to promote the result they want

19

## Descriptive stats

### Present info about data at a glance to give you an overall idea of the results of an experiment

20

## Frequency distribution

### Type of graph illustrating the distribution of how frequently values appear in the data set

21

## Normal distribution

### Distribution with characteristic smooth symmetrical bell shaped curve containing single peak

22

## Inferential statistics

### Stats that allow us to use results from samples to make inferences about overall underlying populations

23

## T test

### Statistical test that considers each data point from both groups to calculate the probability that two samples were drawn from the same population

24

## P value

### Value expressing the probability calculated by t test

25

## Statistical significance

### Number that represents the differences between the groups don't happen by chance to

26

## Observational studies

### Studies used to observe the effect of variables they are interested in without performing manipulation on the subjects

27

## Empiricism

### perspective that states that knowledge should be gained by observation instead of rational perspectives

28

## Paradigm

### Set of assumptions and ideas about what kind of research questions can be asked and how they can be answered

29

## Random assignment

### Assigning participants to either experimental or control group at random to avoid any biases that may cause differences between the groups of subjects

30

## Random sample

### Choosing a set of subjects at random from the population being studied

31

## Sampling bias

### Problem that occurs when a sample is not representative of the population from which it is drawn

32

## Social desirability bias

### A tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about themselves

33