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Flashcards in Research Methods Deck (33):
1






Theory

General set of ideas about the way the world works

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Hypothesis

Specific prediction about the relationship between the variables involved in the theory

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Research method

Determines the way in which the hypothesis will be measured

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Collecting data

Take measurements of the outcomes of tests

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Analyze data

Understand the data and discover trends or relationships between the variables

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Report findings

Publish articles in scholarly journals

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Revise theories

Incorporate new info into our understanding of the world

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Anecdotal evidence

Evidence gathered from self experience or others

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Experiment

Scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on another

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Independent variable

Variable being manipulated by scientist

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Dependent variable

Variable being observed by scientist

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Confounding variable

Variable other than the independent variable that has effect on the results

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Within subjects design

One person acts as the control group and the experimental group


This can be time consuming, costly and practice effects may occur

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Between subjects design

One group acts as control group and one acts as experimental

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Double blind

Participants and experimenters don't know which group is which

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Subject bias

Participants actions in an experiment influence the results outside of the manipulations of the experimenter

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Blinding

Participants don't know which group they are in

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Experimenter bias

Actions made by the experimenter intentionally or not to promote the result they want

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Descriptive stats

Present info about data at a glance to give you an overall idea of the results of an experiment

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Frequency distribution

Type of graph illustrating the distribution of how frequently values appear in the data set

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Normal distribution

Distribution with characteristic smooth symmetrical bell shaped curve containing single peak

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Inferential statistics

Stats that allow us to use results from samples to make inferences about overall underlying populations

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T test

Statistical test that considers each data point from both groups to calculate the probability that two samples were drawn from the same population

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P value

Value expressing the probability calculated by t test

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Statistical significance

Number that represents the differences between the groups don't happen by chance to

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Observational studies

Studies used to observe the effect of variables they are interested in without performing manipulation on the subjects

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Empiricism

perspective that states that knowledge should be gained by observation instead of rational perspectives

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Paradigm

Set of assumptions and ideas about what kind of research questions can be asked and how they can be answered

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Random assignment

Assigning participants to either experimental or control group at random to avoid any biases that may cause differences between the groups of subjects

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Random sample

Choosing a set of subjects at random from the population being studied

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Sampling bias

Problem that occurs when a sample is not representative of the population from which it is drawn

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Social desirability bias

A tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about themselves

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Response set

Tendency of research participants to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the questions