Intro Pathology & Cell adaption Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Intro Pathology & Cell adaption Deck (47):
0

etiology

cause

1

when exposed to stress Mechanisms of adaption are

atrophy
hypertrophy
hyperplasia
metaplasia
dysplasia
neoplasia
age

2

hyperplasia

increase in number of cells in any organ/tissue

3

examples of tissue that undergo physiologic hyperplasia when stressed?

uterus and prostate - hormone induced

4

What tissue exhibits compensatory hyperplasia?

skin calluses from trauma
ex: like digging with a shovel causes calluses to form

5

Pathologic hyperplasia

prolonged hormonal stimulation => BPH, fibroids
viral infection by papillomavirus => wart

6

Hypertrophy

increased size of cells and/or the organ
ex: heart

7

Hypertrophy due to pathogenesis

increased functional demand - running
Hormonal stimulation - thyroxin

8

Atrophy

shrinkage in size of the cell by loss of structural components

9

what can be some causes of atrophy?

decreased work load
loss of innervation
diminished blood supply
inadequate nutrition
loss of endocrine stimulation

10

Metaplasia

reversible change in which one adult epithelial type is replaced by another adult type epithelium

11

Squamous metaplasia in uterine cervix ...

is normal

12

Squamous metaplasia in bronchi

leads to chronic bronchitis in smokers
(columnar going to sqaumous)

13

Chronic irritation of the bronchus

increases risk of infection in lungs

14

If metaplasia is pathologic and prolonged can give rise to

dysplasia then squamous cell carcinoma

15

Dysplasia

epithelial or mesenchymal cells that have undergone metaplasia then atypical cytological alterations involving cell size, shape and orientation
evolution at cellular level detrimental to the host organism
can then lead to cancer (uncontrolled growth)
ex: snuff => cheek

16

Pt has RUQ pain. Stools are pale. Bilirubin 9.7
Normal Bilirubin 0.1-1.1
cholangiogram shows gallstone in bile duct
what change is seen on the skin?

Icterus

17

Pt smokes 2 pk/day and 30 yr
chronic cough for past 3 yrs, worse in past 2 weeks
Left pulmonary parenchymal lesion
Biopsy shows squamous metaplasia
what is most appropriate interpretation?

Irritant effect
this NOT cancer yet

18

Pt experiences blood loss from MVA
hypotensive for hours
Hematocrit is 12%
What tissues least resistant to impact of these events?

Skeletal muscle

19

at end of menstrual cycle, endometrium sloughs off. Endometrium microspocially shows cellular fragmentation
What would trigger upregulation of BCL-2 in endometrial cells?

Decreased estrogen

BCL-2 involved in up regulation of cell death

20

what break up abnormal proteins in cells?

chaperone ubiquitin protease

21

environment accentuates aging by

intracellular accumulation of exogenous materials

22

Antracosis

carbon pigment in the lung
goes to the hilar lymph nodes

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examples of intracellular accumulations

Lipofuscin
melanin
iron
calcium
fat
bilirubin

24

Why do bruises turn brown?

iron deposition and hemosiderin

25

Hemolytic anemia can cause

iron deposits

26

spleen and liver eat up RBCs and recycle

iron to the BM for new RBCs

27

multiple transfusions cause

hemosiderin deposition in the kupfer cells of the liver

28

While dystrophic calcification occurs in dead or injured tissues, metastatic calcification occurs in

normal tissues

29

Conditions that cause reversible fatty liver

Fatty meal
Obesity
Alcoholism
rarely causes fibrosis

30

Causes of Jaundice/Icterus

Results from accumulation of bilirubin
-bile duct occulsion
-alcoholism (late event)
-drugs
-hemolytic anemia
-pancreatic tumors

31

where are you likely to see coagulative necrosis?

myocardium and kidney

32

Coagulative necrosis is not seen in

the brain

33

coagulative necrosis is

wedge shaped
base and apex

34

pathology of coagulative necrosis

anucleate eosinophilic fibers with PMNs
eosinophilic changes due to binding of eosin by denatured proteins, loss of glycogen, membrane disruption and debris

35

Structure of brain

Fatty structure with some nerves
see Liquefactive necrosis

36

Liquefactive necrosis

progressive degradation of cells by enzymes and denaturation of proteins either by autolysis or heterolysis

37

Enzymatic degradation with liquefaction is characteristic of

bacterial/fungal infections due to massive infiltrates of PMN

38

Fat necrosis

saponification of fat cells with calcification due to enzymatic breakdown by lipases
may be dystrophic calcification
feels hard because of the calcium soaps

39

what is the most common cause of Fat necrosis?

trauma to a fatty structure
- Breasts
then its alcohol - causes pancreas to release enzymes

40

Breast nodule

could be fat necrosis
could contain cancer too

41

Caseous Necrosis

'cheesy', round
inflammatory reaction to bacteria
seen in TB
has distinct pattern of centralized amorphous debris and surrounding granuloma - chronic inflammatory cells

42

Gangrenous Necrosis

not a distinct pattern
combination of coagulative (dry) and liquefactive necrosis (wet)
wet component from bacterial invasion

43

Fibrinoid necrosis

accumulation of amorphous, basic, proteinaceous material in the tissue matrix with a staining pattern reminiscent of fibrin
fibrin has been deposited
due to immune reaction

44

Reperfusion injury

inflammatory cells come in but then oxygen and nutrients return and released enzymes cause peripheral damage

45

In the brain liquefactive necrosis with reperfusion can lead

hemorrhage

46

Autophagocytosis happens during Atrophy

this is not necrotic