Intro to Lymphomas Flashcards Preview

MDTI > Intro to Lymphomas > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro to Lymphomas Deck (43):
1

reactive disorders

benign. cells responding appropriately to stimuli via a mixed polyclonal expansion.

2

neoplasm

malignant clonal expansion of a single cell. autonomous to a stimulus, can't be controlled and eventually leads to organ replacement, functional compromise, and death.

3

leukemia

neoplasm that extensively involves the bone marrow and spills into the peripheral blood. Often cells native to the marrow and immature lymphocytes (lymphoblasts)

4

lymphoma

tumors that form solid masses, typically involving lymph nodes or related sites (spleen, GI, skin). Composed of native cells, i.e. mature lymphocytes.

5

CLL/SLL (chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma)

low grade/indolent B cell neoplasm that always involves lymph nodes but usually has circulating peripheral blood component.

6

acute

immature stage of differentiation. early undifferentiated state (blast cells)

7

chronic

mature stage of differentiation. cyte cells.

8

acute term for lymphoid lineage neoplasms

precursor

9

chronic term for lymphoid lineage neoplasms

peripheral

10

components for modern classification system for non hodgkin lymphomas

morphology, immunophenotype, genotype, putative cell of origin, clinical features

11

where are lymphocytes derived from?

immature pluripotent cells in the bone marrow

12

where does maturation of lymphoblasts take place?

bone marrow (b cells) and thymus (T cells)

13

lymphatics in the bone marrow

none! clinically important because if lymphoma cells are found in the marrow, it is indicative of stage 4, widely disseminated disease

14

difference between primary and secondary follicles

primary: aggregate of naive, unstimulated, mature B cells
secondary: stimulated B cells (develop following antigen exposure). consists of germinal center and mantle. antibodies are refined

15

lymph node cortex

houses B and T lymphocytes. divided into perifollicular T cell rich zone and the B cell rich follicles

16

lymph node medulla

location of plasma cells

17

multiple myeloma

malignant plasma cells home in on bone marrow instead of staying confined to medulla

18

what occurs within germinal centers?

antibody refinement via class switching and somatic hypermutation. expansion of CD10+BCL6+BCL2- B cells

19

mantle of secondary follicles

rim of naive b cells surrounding germinal center. not antigen stimulated

20

tangible body macrophages

histiocytes gobbling up dying cells within the germinal center and laden with cellular debris

21

why don't germinal center cells express BCL2?

need apoptosis to occur since so much growth and mitosis occurs within the germinal center

22

centrocytes

smaller quiescent activated B cells that have modified their Ig loci. migrate from dark to light zone of germinal center to make contact with follicular dendritic cells.

23

margin in secondary follicles

composed of B cells that have traversed the germinal center, refined their Ig's and have become quiescent as memory or plasma cells. prominent in the spleen.

24

vast majority of non hodgkin lymphomas are derived from what type of cell?

mature B cells. they undergo multiple rounds of DNA damage as they refine their antibodies

25

why is Hodgkin lymphoma a classification of its own?

neoplastic cells don't look like lymphocytes under the microscope and don't resemble them immunophenotypically either. but is still of lymphoid origin (mature B cells).

26

small lymphomas

size is the same as a resting lymphocyte

27

large lymphoma

size is as big or bigger than nucleus of histiocyte

28

nodular lymphomas

slower acting, derived mostly from germinal center B cells, low grade lesions

29

diffuse lymphomas

high grade, less well differentiated

30

indolent

slowly growing

31

immunophenotype

the expression pattern of surface and intracellular protein markers in a given cell population

32

how to assess immunophenotype

flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry

33

markers of immature B cells

TdT, CD19

34

markers of mature B cells

CD19, CD20

35

markers of germinal center B cells

CD10, BCL6 (-BCL2)

36

markers of immature T cells

TdT, CD1a, cCD3

37

markers of mature T cells

CD2, sCD3, CD5, CD7

38

markers of T cell subsets

CD4/8

39

reason to karyotype lymphoma cells

look for translocations

40

importance of IgH

tends to dysregulate whatever it is juxtaposed next to, so that a normal gene is massively over expressed after the translocation

41

translocation of burkitts lymphoma

t(8;14). IgH/Myc. over expression of MYC

42

translocation of follicular lymphoma

t(14;18). IgH/BCL2. over expression of BCL2

43

what causes the symptoms of lymphomas (B symptoms)

cytokines released by the neoplasms (typically fevers, night sweats, weight loss)