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Flashcards in Iron Deck (28):
1

transferrin

protein that transports oxidized iron (Fe3+) through blood to tissues

2

ferritin

iron (Fe2+) storage molecule within cells

3

where in GI is iron primarily absorbed?

duodenum

4

is iron ingested in oxidized or reduced form?

oxidized form (Fe3+). must be reduced to Fe2+ via Reductase enzyme on intestinal epithelium before absorption

5

transport protein for iron into intestinal epithelia?

DMT1 (reduced form Fe2+)

6

transport protein for iron out of intestinal epithelial into blood stream

Ferroportin (FPN1). transports (Fe2+), oxidase enzyme oxidizes the molecule to Fe3+ before it is bound to transferrin

7

where does process of iron recycling begin?

within macrophages

8

major source of iron for erythropoeisis

recycling

9

iron exporter out of macrophages?

ferroportin

10

iron regulatory hormone produced in liver

hepcidin

11

what type of regulator is hepcidin?

negative regulator

12

functions of hepcidin

inhibits intestinal iron absorption and macrophage release of iron

13

stimuli that decrease hepcidin levels

iron deficiency, increased erythroid demand, hypoxia (all times when we need more iron)

14

stimuli that increase hepcidin levels

iron overload, inflammation

15

mechanism of hepcidin

binds to and down regulates ferroportin, thereby inhibiting iron release from macrophages or intestinal epithelia

16

causes of iron deficiency

inadequate supply (nutritional & malabsorption) or increased demand (blood loss, rapid growth, pregnancy)

17

what can help increase the absorption of iron?

eating heme iron from meat and intake of vitamin C (enhances absorption somehow)

18

signs & symptoms of iron deficiency

pallor, weakness, fatigue, headache, irritability, pica, koionychia, angular stomatitis, blue sclerae

19

koilonychia

spoon finger nails

20

angular stomatitis

inflammation of corner of lips

21

hematologic markers of iron deficiency

decreased Hb, RBC, MCV, reticulocyte count
increased RDW, platelets

22

biochemical markers of iron deficiency

decreased ferritin, serum Fe, transferrin saturation
increased TIBC, FEP

23

TIBC

total iron binding capacity. increased values indicate greater number of open iron binding sites on transferrin

24

treatment for iron deficiency

correct the deficiency via oral ferrous sulfate/slow release iron/parenteral iron/red cell transfusion. then correct the underlying cause

25

characteristics of anemia from chronic inflammation

mild/moderate anemia, normo/microcytic, normal/low reticulocytes. decreased serum Fe, normal iron stores, increased serum ferritin (weird mix of iron deficient and replete symptoms)

26

general characteristic of anemia from chronic inflammation

abnormal systemic iron distribution.

27

what is most likely cause of anemia from chronic inflammation

hepcidin excess due to inflammatory cytokine stimulation

28

best test to distinguish iron deficiency anemia from anemia of chronic inflammation?

serum ferritin levels (high in ACI, low in IDA)