Flashcards in Neoplasia Nomenclature Deck (40):
number of people with disease at the current time. Either alive with the diagnosis/active disease or cured of the disease.
what causes cancer?
DNA mutations that result in the loss of regulation of cell growth and survival pathways. 6-8 mutations in the same cell
how long does it take cancer to develop?
years to decades
most common types of cancer?
lung, breast, prostate, colon
most prevalent cancer?
drug from mustard gas that kills rapidly proliferating cells (indiscriminate with side effects)
tumor. irreversible abnormal mass of tissue arising from a clonal growth of a somatic cell with excessive and uncoordinated growth. due to genetic alterations
reversible, polyclonal response to injury. not a genetic change
criteria for malignancy
invasion & metastasis
tumor moves into adjacent tissues beyond the basement membrane. Not freely mobile, instead tethered between tissues.
tumor colonizes distant sites via circulatory system migration
characteristics of benign tumor
no invasion or metastasis, localized lesion that respects the basement membrane boundary.
nomenclature for benign mesenchymal tumors
add -oma to cell of origin (lipoma, fibroma, chondroma)
other definition for cancer
small gauge needle is inserted into lesion under direct visualization or occasionally by radiographic guidance and cells from lesion are withdrawn
study of disease by direct evaluation of morphology of the diseased tissue. limited to the availability of removed portions of tissue
basic cellular components of all tumors
neoplastic cells and stroma
clonal cells that usually resemble cells from tissue of origin. major determinant of biological behavior
connective tissue and blood vessels within the tumor. provides support and nutrient supply to tumor.
nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio. ratio of the diameter of the nucleus over that of the cell. Higher in a less differentiated cell (more malignant)
irregularity in cell size and shape. signifies malignancy
morphological characteristics of malignancy
N/C>0.5, pleomorphism, hyperchromatia, increased nucleolar size
gross criteria for benign tumor
no invasion, no metastases, encapsulated, pushing borders, exophytic growth (outward fashion)
gross criteria for malignant tumor
invasive, frequent metastases, no encapsulation, infiltrative borders, endophytic growth (down, into, around)
epithelial tumor nomenclature
benign: papilloma, adenoma (glandular)
mesenchymal tumor nomenclature
benign: fibroma, lipoma, etc
hematopoietic tumor nomenclature
only malignant: lymphoma, leukemia
cytologic characteristic of carcinomas
polygonal, cuboidal, columnar. tend to stick together via tight intercellular junctions to forma gland, duct, or sheet
cytologic characteristic of sarcoma
spindle shape, fascicles/bundles
cytologic characteristic of lymphoma/leukemia
individual, isolated cells. one round, large nucleus. dispersed and discohesive
malignant tumor of smooth muscle
spectrum of well differentiated to anaplastic. the more undifferentiated the tumor is, the more malignant it is
disordered growth. changes in cytologic features (pleomorphism), loss of differentiation, change in nuclear features (hyperchromasia, abnormal mitotic activity), disordered architecture
carcinoma in situ
pre invasive cancer. confined within basement membrane but has acquired many other characteristics of malignancy
spectrum to development of cancer
dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, carcinoma
based on microscopic features of the primary tumor. used to predict clinical aggressiveness.