Neoplasia Nomenclature Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neoplasia Nomenclature Deck (40):
1

prevalence

number of people with disease at the current time. Either alive with the diagnosis/active disease or cured of the disease.

2

what causes cancer?

DNA mutations that result in the loss of regulation of cell growth and survival pathways. 6-8 mutations in the same cell

3

mutagen

causes mutations

4

carcinogen

causes cancer

5

how long does it take cancer to develop?

years to decades

6

most common types of cancer?

lung, breast, prostate, colon

7

most prevalent cancer?

breast (1/5)

8

chemotherapy

drug from mustard gas that kills rapidly proliferating cells (indiscriminate with side effects)

9

neoplasm

tumor. irreversible abnormal mass of tissue arising from a clonal growth of a somatic cell with excessive and uncoordinated growth. due to genetic alterations

10

hyperplasia

reversible, polyclonal response to injury. not a genetic change

11

criteria for malignancy

invasion & metastasis

12

invasion

tumor moves into adjacent tissues beyond the basement membrane. Not freely mobile, instead tethered between tissues.

13

metastasis

tumor colonizes distant sites via circulatory system migration

14

characteristics of benign tumor

no invasion or metastasis, localized lesion that respects the basement membrane boundary.

15

nomenclature for benign mesenchymal tumors

add -oma to cell of origin (lipoma, fibroma, chondroma)

16

other definition for cancer

malignant tumor

17

needle aspiration

small gauge needle is inserted into lesion under direct visualization or occasionally by radiographic guidance and cells from lesion are withdrawn

18

histopathology

study of disease by direct evaluation of morphology of the diseased tissue. limited to the availability of removed portions of tissue

19

basic cellular components of all tumors

neoplastic cells and stroma

20

neoplastic cells

clonal cells that usually resemble cells from tissue of origin. major determinant of biological behavior

21

tumor stroma

connective tissue and blood vessels within the tumor. provides support and nutrient supply to tumor.

22

N/C ratio

nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio. ratio of the diameter of the nucleus over that of the cell. Higher in a less differentiated cell (more malignant)

23

pleomorphism

irregularity in cell size and shape. signifies malignancy

24

hyperchromatia

denser chromatin

25

morphological characteristics of malignancy

N/C>0.5, pleomorphism, hyperchromatia, increased nucleolar size

26

gross criteria for benign tumor

no invasion, no metastases, encapsulated, pushing borders, exophytic growth (outward fashion)

27

gross criteria for malignant tumor

invasive, frequent metastases, no encapsulation, infiltrative borders, endophytic growth (down, into, around)

28

epithelial tumor nomenclature

malignant: carcinoma
benign: papilloma, adenoma (glandular)

29

mesenchymal tumor nomenclature

malignant: sarcoma
benign: fibroma, lipoma, etc

30

hematopoietic tumor nomenclature

only malignant: lymphoma, leukemia

31

cytologic characteristic of carcinomas

polygonal, cuboidal, columnar. tend to stick together via tight intercellular junctions to forma gland, duct, or sheet

32

cytologic characteristic of sarcoma

spindle shape, fascicles/bundles

33

cytologic characteristic of lymphoma/leukemia

individual, isolated cells. one round, large nucleus. dispersed and discohesive

34

leiomyosarcoma

malignant tumor of smooth muscle

35

tumor grading

spectrum of well differentiated to anaplastic. the more undifferentiated the tumor is, the more malignant it is

36

dysplasia

disordered growth. changes in cytologic features (pleomorphism), loss of differentiation, change in nuclear features (hyperchromasia, abnormal mitotic activity), disordered architecture

37

carcinoma in situ

pre invasive cancer. confined within basement membrane but has acquired many other characteristics of malignancy

38

spectrum to development of cancer

dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, carcinoma

39

tumor grading

based on microscopic features of the primary tumor. used to predict clinical aggressiveness.

40

tumor staging

refers to the extent of the disease.