Intro to Nervous System and CNS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Intro to Nervous System and CNS Deck (46)
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31

State the general function of the pons.

motor nuclei for cranial nerves 5,6,7 and sensory nucleus for cranial nerve 8

- bridging connection between medulla oblongata and mesencephalon
- connection to cerebellum and two respiratory centers

32

State the general functions of the cerebellum.

provides motor impulses to skeletal muscles

33

States the general functions of the medulla oblongata.

- contribute fibers to cranial nerves 8,9,10,11,12
- cardiac center with inhibitory and excitatory functions
- vasmotor center which can elevate blood pressure by causing vasconstriction
- respiratory center that controls rate and depth of breathing

MAJOR FEATURE: decussation
- left half of brain is sensory and motor to right half of body

34

State the major function of each named lobe of a cerebral hemisphere.

Frontal Lobe

major function: voluntary control of skeletal muscle activity

roles in communication, thought, and personality

35

State the major function of each named lobe of a cerebral hemisphere.

Parietal Lobe

general sensory perception

36

State the major function of each named lobe of a cerebral hemisphere.

Temporal Lobe

interpretation of sound and sense of body position and balance

37

State the major function of each named lobe of a cerebral hemisphere.

Occipital Lobe

visual interpretation and coordination of eye movements

38

State the major function of each named lobe of a cerebral hemisphere.

Insular Lobe

one of the centers of memory and integrates other cerebral activities

39

Explain why the spinal cord widens in two places.

there are two swellings called cervical and lumbosacral intumescences. enlargements occur because of the increased number of neurons and fiber tracts in those areas which are associated with the limbs.

40

Schematically diagram and label a transverse section of the spinal cord.

pg. 306

41

Sketch and label the relationship of the three meninges to the brain and spinal cord.

What are the three meninges?

pg. 307

1. Dura Mater - heavy and thickest layer
2. Arachnoid Mater - just deep to dura mater
3. Pia Mater - thinnest and intermost meninx

42

State where CSF is produced and reabsorbed, name the spaces it occupies, and indicate the total volume produced each day as well as the volume present at any given moment.

1. CSF is produced in the ependymal cells in structures called choroid plexuses (located in ventricles of the brain)
2. CSF is reabsorbed in arachnoid granulations
3. several hundred milliliters are produced each day
4. 175 ml is present at any given moment
5. the spaces it occupies are
- ventricles of the brain
- central canal of the spinal cord
- mesencephalic aqueduct
- subarachnoid space within the meninges
- surround internal ear

43

Discuss hydrocephalus.

flow or reabsorption of CSF is blocked causing excess CSF to produce. this can require surgical intervention to relieve pressure or brain damage may result.

44

Define CVA and state its causes.

CVA - "stroke" caused by blockages or ruptures of cerebral vessels which result in lack of blood flow to parts of the brain

45

Differentiate the various types of paralysis involving the whole limbs.

Quadriplegia: loss of ability to move all limbs

Paraplegia: loss of ability to move inferior limbs

Hemiplegia: loss of ability to move limbs on one side of body (right arm, right leg)

46

Name several diseases that occur with no detectable change in brain or spinal cord and several that have CNS lesions (homan said not to worry about that one)

- Dyslexia

- Epilepsy - temporary loss of consciousness and varying degrees of seizures

- Mental Illness

- Poliomyelitis - viral disease that destroys motor neurons in anterior column of gray matter in spinal cord

- Meningitis - bacterial/viral infection involving meninges

- Syphilis - sexually transmitted disease

- Tay Sachs Disease - heritable condition caused by excess accumulation of one of lipid components in myelin

- Multiple Sclerosis- destroys myelination

- Parkinson's Disease- destruction of neurons within basal nuclei of brain resulting in muscular tremors, speech deficits, etc.

- Alzheimer's Disease