Flashcards in Intro to Thermal Agents Deck (40)
amount of energy required to raise the temp. of a given wt. of a given material by a given # of degress
therapy where warmer thermal agents are applied at lower temp.
heating by direct contact b/w warmer and colder molecules
How many layers of towels should be placed b/w pt. and hot pack?
heat transfer that occurs as the result of direct contact b/w a circulating medium and another material of a different temp.
What type of heat transfer occurs in a whirlpool?
heat transfer that involves the conversion of a nonthermal form of energy such as mechanical, electrical or chemical into heat (ex. ultrasound, diathermy)
transfer of energy from a material of a higher temp. to a lower temp. w/ out the need for any type of medium or direct contact (ex. infrared lamps)
decrease in temp. due to a material absorbing the energy and then evaporating away. (ex. sweating, vapocoolant spray)
use of cold applications in rehabilitation and other areas of medicine (used for controlling inflammation)
What are the Neuromuscular effects to cold?
Decreased nerve conduction Velocity
Increased pain threshold
Altered muscle strength
Facilitation of muscle contraction
Documentation of a modality includes:
Response to intervention
T/F? You check the area treated with a modality before AND after treatment.
What is the sequence of sensations in response to cryotherapy?
1. intense cold
T/F? Strength testing should be performed before rather than after cryotherapy application.
What are some types of application techniques of cryotherapy?
Controlled mold compression unit
What temperature should the tissue be kept at during a cryotherapy treatment?
>15 degrees celcius
At what temperature does freezing/frostbite occur?
- 4 to - 15 degrees celcius
Give examples of contraindications for cryotherapy.
Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria
Area of regenerating peripheral nerves
Area of circulatory compromise
Give examples of precautions for cryotherapy.
Superficial main branch of nerve
Very young/very old
What are the hemodynamic effects of heat? (vasodilation or vasoconstriction)
What are the neuromuscular effects of heat?
Changes in nerve conduction velocity and firing rate
Increased pain threshold
Changes in muscle strength
Why would you use superficial heat?
Pain control, increased ROM and decreased joint stiffness, accelerated healing, infrared radiation for psoriasis
What are the contraindications for thermotherapy?
IR radiation of the eyes
What are some precautions for thermotherapy?
What are the top 4 adverse effects of thermotherapy?
Skin/eye damage from IR
Does thermotherapy increase or decrease metabolic rate?
Does thermotherapy increase or decrease tissue extensibility?
What are some physiological reasons for vasodilation after thermotherapy?
Inflammation --> increase vasodilator (histamine and prostaglandin) release
Decrease sympathetic adrenergic activation
Smooth muscle relaxation