Intro to Thermal Agents Flashcards Preview

DPT 623 Physical Agents > Intro to Thermal Agents > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro to Thermal Agents Deck (40)
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1

Specific Heat

amount of energy required to raise the temp. of a given wt. of a given material by a given # of degress

2

Fluidotherapy

therapy where warmer thermal agents are applied at lower temp.

3

Conduction

heating by direct contact b/w warmer and colder molecules

4

How many layers of towels should be placed b/w pt. and hot pack?

6-8

5

Convection

heat transfer that occurs as the result of direct contact b/w a circulating medium and another material of a different temp.

6

What type of heat transfer occurs in a whirlpool?

convection

7

Conversion

heat transfer that involves the conversion of a nonthermal form of energy such as mechanical, electrical or chemical into heat (ex. ultrasound, diathermy)

8

Radiation

transfer of energy from a material of a higher temp. to a lower temp. w/ out the need for any type of medium or direct contact (ex. infrared lamps)

9

Evaporation

decrease in temp. due to a material absorbing the energy and then evaporating away. (ex. sweating, vapocoolant spray)

10

Cryotherapy

use of cold applications in rehabilitation and other areas of medicine (used for controlling inflammation)

11

What are the Neuromuscular effects to cold?

Decreased nerve conduction Velocity
Increased pain threshold
Altered muscle strength
Decreased spasticity
Facilitation of muscle contraction

12

Documentation of a modality includes:

Area treated
Cooling agent
Treatment duration
Patient positioning
Response to intervention

13

T/F? You check the area treated with a modality before AND after treatment.

TRUE!

14

What is the sequence of sensations in response to cryotherapy?

1. intense cold
2. burning
3. aching
4. analgesia
5. numbness

15

T/F? Strength testing should be performed before rather than after cryotherapy application.

TRUE!

pg. 137

16

What are some types of application techniques of cryotherapy?

Cold/ice pack
Ice massage
Controlled mold compression unit
Vapocoolant spray
Gameready

17

What temperature should the tissue be kept at during a cryotherapy treatment?

>15 degrees celcius

18

At what temperature does freezing/frostbite occur?

- 4 to - 15 degrees celcius

19

Give examples of contraindications for cryotherapy.

Cold hypersensitivity
Cold intolerance
Cryoglobulinemia
Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria
Reynaud's phenomenon
Area of regenerating peripheral nerves
Area of circulatory compromise

20

Give examples of precautions for cryotherapy.

Superficial main branch of nerve
Open wound
Hypertension
Poor sensation
Poor mutation
Very young/very old

21

What are the hemodynamic effects of heat? (vasodilation or vasoconstriction)

Vasodilation

22

What are the neuromuscular effects of heat?

Changes in nerve conduction velocity and firing rate
Increased pain threshold
Changes in muscle strength

23

Why would you use superficial heat?

Pain control, increased ROM and decreased joint stiffness, accelerated healing, infrared radiation for psoriasis

24

What are the contraindications for thermotherapy?

Hemorrhage
Thrombophlebitis
Impaired sensation
Impaired mentation
Malignancy
IR radiation of the eyes

25

What are some precautions for thermotherapy?

Acute injury/inflammation
Pregnancy
Impaired circulation
Edema
Cardiac insufficiency
Metal
Open wounds
Topical counterirritant
Demyelinated nerves

26

What are the top 4 adverse effects of thermotherapy?

Burns
Fainting
Bleeding
Skin/eye damage from IR

27

Does thermotherapy increase or decrease metabolic rate?

INCREASE

28

Does thermotherapy increase or decrease tissue extensibility?

INCREASE

29

What are some physiological reasons for vasodilation after thermotherapy?

Inflammation --> increase vasodilator (histamine and prostaglandin) release

Decrease sympathetic adrenergic activation

Smooth muscle relaxation

30

What are the 5 sequences of sensation?

1. Intense cold
2. Burning
3. Aching
4. Analgesia
5. Numbness