Tone Abnormalities Flashcards Preview

DPT 623 Physical Agents > Tone Abnormalities > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tone Abnormalities Deck (35)
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1

Help produce synergies (particular patterns of movements)

Neural circuits

2

Refers to the CNS areas originating above the spinal cord

Supraspinal

3

Volitional movement originates from what?

A sensation, idea, memory, or external stimulus

4

Neurons in the ____ compare intended movement with sensory input received about the actual movement

Cerebellum

5

Modulate movement and tone

Basal ganglia

6

Basal ganglia are composed of what five groups of neurons?

Putamen, caudate, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra

7

Receives a rich supply of input from the vision system, auditory system, vestibular system, somatosensory system, and motor cortex

Reticular-activating system

8

How does the limbic system influence movement and muscle tone?

Via the RSTs and connections with the basal ganglia

9

What does muscle tone and activation depend on?

Normal composition and functioning of the muscles, the PNS, and CNS

10

What can result in abnormal muscle tone?

An injury or pathology

11

Low muscle tone

Hypotonicity

12

Hypotonicity usually results from what?

Loss of normal alpha motor neuron input to muscle fibers

13

What causes denervation in a muscle?

When disease or injury of the alpha motor neurons removes neuronal input

14

What is a possible consequences of abnormally low muscle tone?

Difficulty developing enough force output for normal posture and movement

15

What is rearborizing?

Each alpha motor neuron remaining in a muscle may increase the number of muscle fibers it innervates by increasing its number of axonal branches

16

What are some physical agents used for hypotonicity caused by alpha motor neuron damage?

Hydrotherapy, quick ice, E-stim, biofeedback

17

High muscle tone

Hypertonicity

18

Hypertonicity is a result of what?

Abnormally high excitatory input compared to the inhibitory input to an intact alpha motor neuron

19

What are some consequences of high muscle tone?

Contractures, abnormal posture, skin breakdown, discomfort/pain from muscle spasms

20

What are some interventions used to counter hypertonicity/contractures following a spinal cord injury?

ROM exercises, prolonged stretch, positioning/orthotics to maintain functional muscle length, medications, surgery

21

What are some causes of cerebral (CNS) lesions?

Cerebral vascular disorders (stroke), cerebral palsy, tumors, CNS infection, head injury

22

What is another consequence of CNS pathology besides spasticity?

Rigidity

23

The resting tremor of a patient with Parkinson's disease is an example of what?

Fluctuating tone that results in involuntary movement

24

Definition: the underlying tension in a muscle that serves as a background for contraction.

Muscle Tone

25

Definition: low tone or decreased resistance to stretch compared with normal muscles

Hypotonicity

26

Definition: high tone or increased resistance to stretch compared with normal muscles

Hypertonicity

27

Definition: lack of tone or absence of resistance to passive stretch within the middle range of the muscle's length

Flaccidity

28

Definition: loss of voluntary movement

Paralysis

29

Definition: an abnormal, hypertonic state in which muscles are stiff or immovable and in which they are resistance to all stretch regardless of velocity or direction.

Rigidity

30

Definition: an abnormal, hypertonic muscle response in which quicker passive muscles stretches elicit greater resistance than slower stretches.

Spasticity