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Flashcards in Introduction to blood Deck (46):
1

What are the functions of blood?

Carriage of physically active compounds
Clotting
Defence
Gas transport
Thermoregulation
Maintenance of ECF pH

2

How much of the blood is plasma?

50%

3

How much of the plasma is water>

95%

4

What can be said about the quantity of biologically active compounds within the blood?

Kept at a relatively constant level

5

What are the three categories of plasma protein?

Albumin
Globin
Fibrinogen and other clotting factors

6

What is albumin used for?

Transport of steroids and lipids - it is the most abundant plasma protein

7

What is Globulin used for?

Alpha and beta globulin have the same function as albumin
Gamma globulin acts like anti-bodies

8

What can be said about the volume and the concentration of the fluid in the plasma?

Concentration stays the same since water passes into the plasma, but therefore volume changes

9

What is Oncotic pressure/ colloidosmotic pressure?

Osmotic pressure exerted by proteins in the vessel lumen, usually pulls water into the circulation

10

What is meant by hyrdostatic pressure and which direction of fluid movement does it favour?

Favours the movement of water from the capillary to the interstitial fluid (hyrdostatic pressure is greater in the capillary)

It is defined as the pressure created by fluid due to the force of gravity - increases with depth

11

What is hypoproteinaemia?

Abnormally low levels of protein circulating in the plasma

12

What causes hypoproteinaemia?

Prolonged starvation - breakdown of plasma proteins
Liver failure - reduced synthesis
Kidney disease - sieve holes are bigger
Intestinal disease - reduces the amino acids used for synthesis

13

What are the two classifications of blood cells?

Myeloid, lymphoid

14

Where do all myeloid cells come from?

Undifferentiated stem cells -> Differentiated progenitor cells -> Myeloid cells

15

How long does it take a reticulocyte to form a rbc (both found in the circulation)

24 hours

16

Where do you find all immature blood cells?

Bone marrow

17

What colour does the red blood cell (most abundant type of blood cell) adopt when the haemoglobin binds to oxygen?

Bright red

18

What is the life span of a red blood cell?

120 days

19

What organelles does a rbc not contain?

Nucleus, ribosome, mitochondria

20

What is the name given to red blood cell formation?

Erythropoiesis

21

What is erythropoiesis controlled by?

Erythropoietin

22

Where is erythropoietin secreted from?

Peritubular capillary cells - kidney cells (85%)
Hepatocyte cells - (15%)

23

When is erythropoietin secretion enhanced?

When oxygen delivery to the kidneys is reduced - hypoxia

24

What might be the cause of hypoxia?

Haemorrage, anaemia, cardiac dysfunction, lung disease

25

What is the name given to white blood cells?

Leukocytes - involved in the defence against pathogens

26

What type of cells are granulocytes?

Cytoplasms are granular - polymorphonucleated cells
Examples include - neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

27

What is the function of neutrophils? And what is their life span?

Phagocytic and can engulf bacteria in nets
They have a half life of 6 hours
FORM PUSS

28

When are Eosinophils useful?

Number increases rapidly during an allergic response,
They attack pathogens too large for neutrophiils and other defence cells - parasites

29

What is the function of basophils?

Release heparin and histamine - trigger inflammation

Heparin - Reduces blood viscosity - most highly negatively charged biological molecule known to mankind

Histamine - Involved in inflammation and pruritus (itching)

30

Describe the size of a monocyte?

The largest white blood cell

31

Describe what kind of cell is derived from monocytes?

Macrophages

32

What is the difference in phagocytic activity between phagocytes and macrophages?

Monocytes are less phagocytic

33

What is the name given to the immune system that has memory?

The adaptive immune system

34

What type of cells are lymphocytes?

White blood cells - Adaptive immune system - B cells and T cells

35

What controls leukopoiesis?

Cytokines ( proteins/peptides) - controls mitosis and cell maturation

36

Give two examples of cytokines

Colony stimulating factors
Interleukins

37

Where are cytokines released from?

Endothelial cells, mature white blood cells and fibroblasts
A cell in connective tissue which produces collagen and other fibres.

38

What might a bacterial infection give rise to?

Neutrophils

39

What might a viral infection give rise to?

Lymphocytes

40

How can the differential white cell count be used in diagnosis?

Allows you to tell the difference between infection types, since cytokine cocktail is dynamic

41

What are platelets?

Membrane bound cell fragments, rarely nucleated,

42

What governs platelet formation?

Thromboprotein

43

What is the function of a platelet?

Attaches to damaged vessel walls and exposed connective tissue to mediate blood clotting?

44

What is a haematocrit defined as?

The percentage of red blood cells to the whole blood

45

Which is thicker plasma or whole blood?

Whole blood

46

What does viscosity depend on?

The temperature
The haematocrit (50% increase gives rise to 100% increase in viscosity)
Flow rate (decreased flow rate increases viscosity)