Autonomic Physiology 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Autonomic Physiology 2 Deck (25)
1

What is the effect of adrenaline on alpha receptors in the eye?

Makes radial muscles contract, increasing the size of the pupil

2

What is the effect o noradrenaline on beta receptors in the eye?

Makes the ciliary muscles relax, making the eye focus further away

3

What is the effect of acetylcholine on the muscarinic ciliary muscle receptor within the eye?

Makes the ciliary muscle contract, so the eye now focusses closer.

4

What is the effect of acetylcholine on the muscarinic receptors in the sphincter muscle?

Makes the sphincter muscles contract, making the pupil smaller

5

What is the effect of noradrenaline on the pacemaker cells within the heart?

Activates beta 1 receptors on the pacemaker cells, makes the heart beat faster

6

What is the effect of noradrenaline on the myocytes?

Activates mainly beta 1 receptors and increases the strength of contraction

7

What is the effect of acetylcholine on the pacemaker cells within the heart?

Activates muscarininc receptors and reduces the heart rate

8

What is the effect of acetylcholine on myocytes?

Little affect

9

What is the effect of noradrenaline on the lungs?

Activates B2 receptors on the smooth muscle of the airways, makes smooth muscle relax and dilates airways.

10

What is the effect of acetylcholine on the lungs?

Activates muscarinic receptors and makes the smooth muscle of the airways contract and constrict airways

11

What type of agonist is salbutamol?

Beta 2 agonist, opens airways but doesn't affect the heart

12

What is the effect of noradrenaline on the blood vessels?

Activates the alpha 1 receptors, making smooth muscle contract reducing blood flow.
Activates beta 2 receptors, making smooth muscle of the blood vessels relax, increasing blood flow

13

What is the effect of the parasympathetic system on blood vessels?

Usually no effect

14

What is the effect of noradrenaline on the gut?

Activates alpha AND beta receptors in the smooth muscle of the gut and decreases gut motility

15

What is the effect of noradrenaline on the pancreas?

Activates alpha receptors in the pancreas, inhibiting the secretion of enzymes.

16

What is the effect of acetylcholine on the gut?

Activates muscarinic receptors on the smooth muscle, increasing gut motility
Activates muscarinic receptors on the smooth muscle of the pancreas, increasing the secretion of enzymes

17

What effect does the sympathetic nervous system have on energy stores?

Activates alpha / beta receptors on the liver cells (hepatocytes), stimulating gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis
Activates alpha/beta receptors on fat cells (lipocytes) increases lipolysis (the breakdown of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis to release fatty acids)

18

What is the effect of the parasympathetic system on energy stores?

No effect

19

What is the effect of noradrenaline on salivary glands?

Activates beta receptors stimulating a thick secretion rich in enzymes

20

What is the effect of the parasympathetic system on salivary glands?

Stimulates a profuse watery solution

21

What is the effect of noradrenaline on the bladder?

Activates beta 2 receptors on the smooth muscle of the bladder wall, causing the muscle to relax and reduce pressure
Activates the alpha receptor of the sphincter muscle, causes the sphincter muscle to contract and stops urination

22

What is the effect of acetylcholine on the bladder?

Contracts smooth muscle of the bladder wall and increases pressure,
Relaxes smooth muscle of the sphincter and causes urination

23

What is the effect of the sympathetic nervous system on the reproductive tract?

Activates alpha 1 receptors of the smooth muscle on the urethra causing the muscle to contract and cause ejaculation

24

What is the effect of the parasympathetic nervous system on the reproductive tract?

Activates the receptors on the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum, relaxes the smooth muscle and causes erection

25

What controls the para and sympathetic nervous system?

Autonomic reflexes, and the central control from the hypothalamus