Flashcards in Nitrogen 2 Deck (15)
How is ammonia transported in the bloodstream?
Where is excess glutamine processed?
Intestines kidney and liver
Glutamate + ammonia =
How is alanine made?
Glutamate donates ammonia to pyruvate
Why is pyruvate converted to alanine?
Pyruvate builds up in an anaerobically working muscle - lactic acid build up. By forming alanine it can be transported to the liver
What happens to the protein that's broken down during exercise?
Transported to the liver as alanine or glutamine. Carbon skeleton is converted into glucose or oxidised as part of the citric acid cycle. Nitrogen is excreted as ammonia and converted to urea by the urea cycle
Why is nitrogen transported through the body as glutamine and alanine instead of glutamate?
Glutamate has a negative charge - does not pass readily through cell membranes
Alanine and glutamine do not bear charge
Where is excess glutamate metabolised?
Mitochondria of hepatocytes
What is the name of the process where glutamate loses its notrogen as ammoia to form alpha ketoglutarate? And what is the electron acceptor?
Oxidative deamination (two electron oxidation followed by hydrolysis) NAD+ and NADP+
What is the function of Carbomyl Phosphate?
Recaptures the ammonia from glutamate and enters the urea cycle.
How many essential amino acids exist (ones we can only obtain through our diet)?
What is the fate of ketogenic amino acids?
They are broken down to produce acetyl - CoA (forms ketone bodies or is oxidised in the citric acid cylce) and acetoacetylacetate.
What are glucogenic amino acids?
Feed in to gluconeogenesis and can produce glucose or glycogen in the liver.
Why can't ketogenic amino acids produce glucose?
Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction is irreversible (Pyruvate to acetyl CoA). No net increase in Oxaloacetate.