Flashcards in Bones and Joints - Pre Practical Lecture Deck (90):
The end part of a long bone
The central part of a long bone
The wide part of a long bone between the epiphysis and the narrow diaphysis. It contains the growth plate.
The smooth end of a bone that articulates (in a joint) with the condyle of an adjoining bone.
A protuberance above or on the condyle of a long bone, allows for attachment to ligaments and muscles that act on the joint
What is a fossa?
A shallow depression
Any projection or bump
A narrow groove
A rough projection slightly bigger than a tubercule
A small projection
A pointed process
What cells are contained within bone marrow?
Adipose cells and Adipocytes
What is a suture?
Fibrous joint, Immovable joint, found in the skull, fuses after 20 years
What are gomphmoses?
Fibrous joint, Immovable joints, articulate the teeth with their sockets
What are syndemoses?
Fibrous joint, Slightly movable joints, held together by interroseous membrane,
What are the four types of bone?
Compact, spongy, epiphyseal growth plate (contains hyaline cartilage) Bone marrow
Describe primary cartilaginous (synchondroses) joint
Only Hyaline cartilage, immovable and temporary, (between epiphysis and diaphysis)
Describe a secondary cartilaginous (symphyses) joint
Contains fibrocartilage and Hyaline cartilage (midline of the body, intervertebral discs), doesn't ossify with age
Define joint cavity in synovial joint
Space between articulating bones lined with synovial membrane
Define joint capsule
Surrounds joint cavity
Define synovial membrane
Secretes synovial fluid which lubricates and nourishes the joint
Define articular cartilage
Hyaline cartilage that covers the ends of the articulating bones, covered with synovial fluid
Describe the different types of synovial joint (there are 6)
Hinge, pivot, condylar, saddle, ball and socket, plane
What is flexion?
Decreasing the angle of a joint
What is extension?
Increasing the angle of a joint
What is dorsiflexion?
Decreasing the angle of the ankle joint
What is plantarflexion?
Increasing the angle of the ankle joint
What is elevation?
Moving part of the body in the superior direction
What is depression?
Moving part of the body in an inferior direction
What is eversion?
Rotating the ankle so that the soul of the foot points away from the other
What is inversion?
The opposite of eversion
What is abduction?
Moving a limb away from the medial line of the body
What is adduction?
The opposite of abduction
What is lateral rotation?
Rotating a limb away from the medial line of the body
What is medial rotation
The opposite of lateral roatation
What is pronation?
Rotating the forearm so that the palm is facing down if the forearm is flexed
What is supination?
What is retraction?
Posterior movement of the arm at the shoulder
What is protraction?
The opposite of retraction
What is lateral flexion?
Bending the spine to the side away from the medial line.
What is circumduction?
The combination of different movements around a joint
What does joint stability depend on?
Muscles, tendons, the fibrous capsule, the shape of articulating surfaces of the bones
What is the blood and nerve supply in joints like?
Why do blood vessels branch and reconnect around a blood vessel?
Stops the compression of the blood vessels and the restriction of blood flow
What sense are joints heavily influential in?
What is Hilton's law?
The nerve supplying a muscle that crosses a joint also innervates the joint
Closer the the head
Closer to the feet
Nearer to the front
Nearer to the back
Nearer to the medial plane
Further away from the medial plane
Nearer to the trunk or point of origin
Further away from the trunk or point of origin
Nearer to, or on the surface
Further away from the surface
Nearer to or on the the palm of the hand
Nearer to or on the soul of the foot
Nearer to or on the back of the body or structure
Nearer to or on the front of the body or structure
Define cranial or Rostral
Nearer to the head
Nearer to the feet
On the same side of the body or structure
On the opposite side of the body or structure
What are the 5 body regions of the body?
Head and neck
What are the 5 body cavities of the body?
Dorsal body cavity - Cranial and vertebral
Ventral body cavity - Thoracic (diaphragm separates)
Which germ layer does nerve tissue arise from ?
Which germ layer gives origin to bone, cartilage and skeletal muscle?
Which germ layer gives rise to the digestive tract and the lining of blood vessels?
Other than the epiphyseal growth plate where else is hyaline cartilage found in long bone?
Articular cartilage on the articulating surfaces of long bone
What tissue is found in the medullary cavity and what is its function?
Hematopoetic tissue - responsible for hematopoeisis
What does the axial skeleton refer to?
Bones situated on the long axis of the body in the anatomical position
The axial skeleton is the part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the head and trunk of a vertebrate.
What does the appendicular skeleton refer to?
Bones that are appended to the axial skeleton
What are limb girdles?
They surround and support proximal ends of the limbs. Provide a point of attachment for the appendicular bones to the axial bones.
Which two bones form the upper limb girdle
Scapula and the clavicle
Which three bones from the lower limb girdle?
Pubis, ilium and ischium
What is the function of compact bone?
Protection of cancellous bone - Structural support
What is the function of spongy bone?
Facilitates the movement of joints and limbs
What is the function of the marrow cavity?
Production of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
What is the function of the periosteum?
Attachment to tissue
Envelopes the bone except at the surface of joints
Where is the metaphysis?
Between the epiphysis and the diaphysis
Which tissue gives rise to appostitional bone growth?
Which tissue gives rise to the interstitial growth of a bone?
The epiphyseal growth plate
Give examples of the 5 types of bone
Long - humerus
Irregular bones - vertebra and mandible
Flat - Skull and ribs
Short - carpal and tarsal
Sesamoid bone - patella
What is the function of a condyle?
Articulates with other bone in a joint
Which structures attach to the epicondyles and tuberosities?
Ligaments and tendons
Which structure attaches to a spine?
What is intramembranous ossification?
When the embryological connective tissue membrane (mesenchyme) becomes replaced by bone.
Flat bones of the skull face and jaw and centre of clavivel