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Flashcards in Introduction to Epidemiology Deck (31)
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1

What are epidemiological principles essential for understanding?

Spread of disease in population and how to manage

occurrence of complex diseases and productivity problems

impact of disease on populations

2

What is evidence-based veterinary medicine?

use the best available evidence for decision-making in the care of your patient

3

2 sources of evidence

internal evidence

external evidence

4

What is internal evidence?

your own clinical experience and expertise

5

What is external evidence?

evidence from other research

6

What is epidemiology

the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems

study of disease in populations

7

what does veterinary epidemiology investigate?

disease, productivity, and welfare in animal populations

8

what is the goal of veterinary epidemiology?

reduce frequency of disease occurrence, enhance productivity ad improve welfare

9

what are the purposes of epidemiology?

describe the distribution of health-related states/events (who, what, where, when)

identify determinants of health-related outcomes (why)

10

clinical way of thinking

focuses on individual

success depends on: disease being known, correct diagnosis/list of diagnoses

11

epidemiological way of thinking

focuses on groups

success without known the etiological agent

12

which is the best approach?

use both clinical and epidemiological

13

descriptive epidemiology

describes the disease

who, what, where, when

14

analytical epidemiology

attempt to explain differences in patterns of disease by examining associations and identifying possible causes of the disease

why

ultimate goal is to determine if an exposure factor causes the disease

15

what is a case definition

standard criteria for categorizing an individual as a case

avoid subjectivity

16

limitations of descriptive epidemiology

cannot formally identify associations between exposure and outcome

cannot infer causality

can be useful to generate hypotheses for future testing using analytical methods

17

examples of descriptive studies

case report

case series

cross-sectional study (with no comparison between groups)

18

what is an association

when exposure and outcome are dependent on one another

19

independent (not associated) means:

when one quantity changes, nothing happens to the other

20

outcome

result of response, usually a disease or some other change in health status

21

exposure

potential determinant of disease or health status

22

what is a determinant

an exposure that is shown to be associate with the outcome

AKA: risk factors, protective factors

23

T/F epidemiology determines the cause of a disease in a given individual

false

24

T/F epidemiology determine the relationship or association between given exposure and the frequency of disease in populations

true

infer causation based on association as well as other factors

25

association

identifiable relationship between an exposure and an outcome

implies that the exposure might cause the outcome

26

causation

implies there is a true mechanism that leads from the exposure to the disease

27

T/F cause of disease means it is the only cause

false

most diseases are complex, with many causes

28

epidemiological triad

consists of external agent susceptible host, and environment that brings the two together

29

T/F the epidemiological triad is inadequate for diseases that appear to have multiple contributing causes without a single necessary one

true

cardiovascular disease, most cancers

30

what is Rothman's model (causal pies)

disease is caused by multiple factors- when a host is exposure to all these factors (not necessarily at the same time) disease occurs