Introduction to Foodborne Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction to Foodborne Diseases Deck (31)
1

burden of foodborne disease

worldwide
very difficult to estimate
diarrhea is a major cause of malnutrition in infants and young children

2

True/False: most cases of foodborne diseases are sporadic

true

3

true/false: outbreaks are more likely to be recognized

true: can be quite large

4

number and severity of cases depends on

Type of microbe – pathogenicity and virulence
Infectious dose – sufficient # of viable microbes to cause illness
Effectiveness of processing methods to reduce microbes – pasteurization, irradiation, refrigeration
Handling of food on the consumer/cooking end

5

foodborne illness

Dzes, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food.

6

foodborne illness outbreak

occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common food

7

true/false: Listeria, botulism, chemical poisoning- considered an outbreak if one person is infected

true: exception to the rule

8

foodborne hazards

biological, chemical or physical (hard foreign object) property that may cause an unacceptable health risk to the consumer

9

foodborne hazards include:

Physical hazards
Toxins
Microbial Pathogen
Drug residues, dioxin, lead
Bacteria
Viruses
Parasites
Prions?

10

true/false: most agents are identified

false: 80% unspecified agents

11

top 5 pathogens resulting in illness

Norovirus
Salmonella, nontyphoidal
Clostridium perfringens
Camplyobacter spp.
Staphlococcus aureus

12

top 5 pathogens resulting in hospitalization

Salmonella, nontyphoidal
Norovirus
Camplyobacter spp.
Toxoplasma gondii
E. coli (STEC) O157

13

top 5 pathogens resulting in death

Salmonella, nontyphoidal
Toxoplasma gondii
Listeria monocytogenes
Norovirus
Camplyobacter spp.

14

food production chain

production
processing
distribution
preparation

15

food safety

Making sure food is safe: Non-negotiable
Prevent hazards from entering the food chain
Remove hazard containing foods from the food chain
Inactivate, neutralize or reduce hazards in food

16

food quality

All other attributes that affect a products value
Negative: spoilage, filth, discoloration
Positive: flavour, tenderness, colour

17

2 categories of food safety

pre harvest
post harvest

18

pre-harvest food safety

Most foodborne pathogens are zoonotic
Most pathogens enter the food chain in animals
Goal is to reduce the “load” of pathogens in/on food animals when they enter the food chain

19

2 main components of pre-harvest food safety

on farm food safety (OFFS)
ante-mortem inspection at slaughter plants

20

OFFS

“best practices” and standards aimed at reducing the pathogen load in animals before they get to processing
veterinarians play a central role
– Herd/flock health programs
– Biosecurity, feed security
– Appropriate Antimicrobial Use (AMU)
– Animal welfare

21

post-harvest food safety

Reduce pathogens during and after
processing: Meat Inspection

22

role of vets in post-harvest

Responsibility on meat plant to produce
products that are fit for human consumption
Vets do less direct inspection
Vets design and implement meat hygiene programs, audit the process, spot inspections, ensure plants comply with regulations

23

food control

Mandatory regulatory activity of enforcement by national or local authorities

24

food control provides

consumer protection
ensure that all foods during production, handling, storage, processing, and distribution are safe, wholesome and fit for human consumption; conform to safety and quality requirements;
honestly and accurately labeled as prescribed by law.

25

3 levels of regulation

internation
national
state

26

Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Agreement

signed when nations join the WTO
Only apply measures that are based on science not disguised barriers to trade

27

Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC)

Intergovernmental body that coordinates food standards at the international level
protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in food trade
Sets standards

28

national food control components

Food Law and Regulations
Food Control Management
Inspection Services
Laboratory Services: Food Monitoring and
Epidemiological Data
Information, Education, Communication and
Training

29

inspection services: 2 primary federal agencies

USDA-FSIS
FDA

30

state food control

Food Law and Regulations
Food Control Management
Inspection Services
Laboratory Services: Food Monitoring and
Epidemiological Data

31

inspection services: state level

State Department of Ag
Local Health Departments