Flashcards in Measures of Association Deck (40)

1

## what are measures of association

### provide mathematical assessment of the relationship between a given exposure and outcome of interest

2

## what 2 things do measures of association do

###
determine if there is an association

measure the strength of the association

3

## what type of studies are MOA used in

### analytical

4

## when comparing exposure groups we assume the exposure is not associated with the disease if:

### same amount of disease found in a group of subjects that has the exposure and dont have the exposure

5

## when comparing outcome groups we assume the exposure is not associated with the disease if:

### same amount of the exposure is found in a group of diseased subjects as non-diseased subjects

6

## why use MOA

###
to make comparisons

- compare exposure groups

- compare outcome groups

7

## 4 types of MOA

###
odds ratio

relative risk

attributable risk

prevalence ratio

8

## when is odds ratio used

###
cross-sectional studies

case-control studies

9

## what MOA can be used in prospective studies used to compare outcomes

###
relative risk (incidence ratio)

attributable risk

- prospective cohort studies

- clinical trials

10

## when is prevalence ratio used

###
retrospective cohort studies

cross-sectional studies

11

## T/F incidence can be measured in case-control and cross-sectional studies

###
false

exposure and disease have already occurred

12

## odds ratio

### ratio of the odds of exposure in the diseased group to the odds of exposure in the non-diseased group

13

## odds

### ratio of number exposed to number not exposed

14

## how do you calculate odds ratio

###
odds of exposure in diseased group

---------------------------------------------

odds of exposure in the non-diseased group

15

## if OR=1

###
odds of exposure among cases was equal to that of controls

no association

16

## if OR>1

###
odd of exposure among cases was greater than that of control

positive association (prob. causal)

17

## if OR

###
odds of exposure among cases was greater than that of controls

negative association ( possible protective)

18

## T/F OR tells you if there is an association and the magnitude of associate

### true

19

## which observational study design compares exposed to non-exposed

###
cohort

clinical trials

cross-sectional studies

20

## incidence (risk)

### measure used to compare the amount of disease that occurs in the exposed and unexposed groups in prospective studies

21

## cumulative incidence (attack rate, risk)

### number of new cases at the end of the study divided by population at risk at the beginning of study

22

## relative risk

### used to compare the risk (or incidence) of disease that occurs in the exposed and unexposed groups

23

## how do you calculate relative risk

###
risk of disease in exposed group

--------------------------------------------

risk of disease in unexposed group

24

## if RR=1

###
risk in exposed = risk in unexposed

no association

25

## if RR>1

###
risk in exposed is greater than unexposed

positive association

26

## if RR

###
risk of disease in exposed is less than risk in unexposed

negative association

27

## attributable risk (AR)

### amount of proportion of overall disease incidence in a population or group that can be attributed to a specific exposure

28

## AR interpreted as

### % of the overall disease incidence can be attributed to this particular exposure

29

## T/F attributable risk is used to quantify an association

###
false

used to set priorities in disease control programs

30

## how do you calculate attributable risk

###
risk exposed- risk unexposed

--------------------------------------------

risk exposed

31

## prevalence ratio

### measure used to compare the amount of disease that occurred in the exposed and unexposed groups in retrospective studies

32

## prevalence

###
probability if being diseased

# of diseased/ total # exposed

33

## how to calculate prevalence ratio

###
prevalence of disease in exposed

--------------------------------------------

prevalence of disease in unexposed

34

## PR= 1

### no association

35

## PR>1

###
positive association (possible causal)

36

## PR

### negative association (posible protective)

37

## which study design uses odds and OR

### case-control

38

## which study design(s) use incidence and RR

###
prospective cohort

clinical trial

39

## which study design(s) use prevalence and PR

### retrospective cohort

40