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Flashcards in Introduction to the Cranial Nerves Deck (67):
1

___ sets of cranial nerves exit foramina of the skull

like the spinal nerves, they are part of the ___ system

by convention, they're designated by roman numerals ___a

12

peripheral nervous

I - XII

2

cranial nerve I (___) is associated w/ the ___

cranial nerve II (___) develops from the ___

all the rest are associated w/ the ___

olfactory
telencephalon

optic
diencephalon

brainstem

3

midbrain cranial nerves (2)

CN III (oculomotor)
CN IV (trochlear)

4

pons cranial nerves (4)

CN V (trigeminal)
CN VI (abducens)
CN VII (facial)
CN VIII (vestibulocochlear)

5

medulla oblongata cranial nerves (4)

CN IX (glossopharyngeal)
CN X (vagus)
CN XI (accessory)
CN XII (hypoglossal)

6

cranial nerves III, VII, IX, & X contain (preganglionic/postganglionic) (sympathetic/parasympathetic) fibers

preganglionic
parasympathetic

7

the cell bodies of all general sensory neurons (___ neurons) are located in the ganglia of the following cranial nerves (4)

pseudounipolar

(V) trigeminal nerve
(VII) facial nerve
(IX) glossopharyngeal nerve
(X) vagus nerve

8

the cell bodies of taste neurons (___ neurons) are located in the ganglia of the following cranial nerves (3)

pdeudounipolar

(VII) facial nerve
(IX) glossopharyngeal nerve
(X) vagus nerve

9

the cell bodies of motor neurons (___ neurons) are located in separate & discrete units called ___ within the ___

multipolar
nuclei
brainstem

10

the ___ nerves innervate all of the structures derived from the branchial arches

branchiomeric cranial

11

the branchiomeric cranial nerves innervate all of the structures derived from the ___

branchial arches

12

branchiomeric cranial nerves & corresponding branchial arches (5)

trigeminal nerve (V) - branchial arch 1
facial nerve (VII) - branchial arch 2
glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) - branchial arch 3
vagus nerve (X) - branchial arches 4-6
accessory nerve (XI) - branchila arches beyond 6?

13

the skeletal muscles derived from somites are innervated by ___ nerves & some of the ___ nerves & are said to be innervated by (somatic/visceral) (sensory/motor) fibers (___)

the skeletal muscles derived from branchial arches & innervated by the a branchiomeric cranial nerves are said to be innervated by ___ (sensory/motor) fibers (___)

spinal
cranial
somatic motor fibers (general somatic efferent)

branchial motor fibers (special visceral efferent)

14

oculomotor nerve (III):

cranial nerve

ganglion

target structures (2)

parasympathetic (motor) root of the ciliary ganglion (preganglionic fibers)

ciliary ganglion (postganglionic fibers)

ciliary muscle
sphincter of the pupil

15

facial nerve (VII) (nervus intermedius portion):

cranial nerve (g)

ganglion

target structures (3)

greater petrosal nerve (preganglionic fibers)

pterygopalatine ganglion (postganglionic fibers)

lacrimal gland
nasal glands
palatine glands

16

facial nerve (VII) (nervus intermedius portion):

cranial nerve (c)

ganglion

target structures (3)

chorda tympani nerve (preganglionic fibers)

submandibular ganglion (postganglionic fibers)

submandibular gland
sublingual gland
lingual glands

17

glossopharyngeal nerve (IX):

cranial nerve

ganglion

target structure (1)

lesser petrosal nerve (preganglionic fibers)

otic ganglion (postganglionic fibers)

parotid gland

18

olfactory nerve (CN I):

primitive (sensory/motor) nerve containing specialized (unipolar/bipolar) neurons in the ___ mucosa

bundles of axons from these neurons constitute olfactory nerves which proceed through the ___ plate of the ___ bone & end in the ___ of the (forebrain/midbrain/hindbrain)

contains special (sensory/motor) fibers for ___

sensory
bipolar
olfactory

cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone
olfactory bulb
forebrain

sensory
smell

19

optic nerve (CN II):

travels through the ___ along w/ the ___ artery

contains special (sensory/motor) fibers for ___

optic canal
ophthalmic

sensory
sight

20

oculomotor nerve (CN III):

contains (somatic/visceral) (sensory/motor) & (sympathetic/parasympathetic) fibers

emerges from the ventral aspect of the (forebrain/midbrain/hindbrain) & proceeds through the lateral wall of the ___ sinus & enters the orbit through the ___ fissure where it immediately divides into two divisions (2)

somatic motor
parasympathetic

midbrain
cavernous
superior orbital

superior
inferior

21

oculomotor nerve (CN III):

muscles that the superior division supplies (2)

levator palpebrae superioris
superior rectus eye

22

oculomotor nerve (CN III):

muscles that the inferior division supplies (3)

medial rectus eye
inferior rectus eye
inferior oblique eye

23

oculomotor nerve (CN III):

the only ocular muscles not supplied by the oculomotor nerve (2)

superior oblique (CN IV)
lateral rectus (CN VI)

24

oculomotor nerve (CN III):

the preganglionic parasympathetic fibers of the oculomotor nerve travel w/ the ___ division & depart from it as the (sympathetic/parasympathetic) (sensory/motor) root of the ___ ganglion

these fibers synapse w/ (preganglionic/postganglionic) (sympathetic/parasympathetic) neurons in the ___ ganglion

inferior
parasympathetic
motor
ciliary

postganglionic
parasympathetic
ciliary

25

oculomotor nerve (CN III):

postganglionic parasympathetic fibers depart from the ciliary ganglion within the ___ nerves & proceed to the eyeball where they supply:
- ___ muscle (involved in accommodation of the lens for near vision)
- ___ (which controls the amount of light entering the eye)

short ciliary
- ciliary
- sphincter of the pupil

26

oculomotor nerve (CN III):

the antagonist of the sphincter of the pupil is the ___ which is supplied by (preganglionic/postganglionic) (sympathetic/parasympathetic) fibers arising from the ___ ganglion

dilator of the pupil
postganglionic
sympathetic
superior cervical

27

trochlear nerve (CN IV):

emerges from the (dorsal/ventral) aspect of the (forebrain/midbrain/hindbrain)


supplies the ___ muscle w/ (somatic/visceral) (sensory/motor) fibers

it passes through the lateral wall of the ___ sinus & enters the orbit through the ___ fissure

dorsal
midbrain

superior oblique eye muscle
somatic motor fibers

cavernous
superior orbital

28

abducens nerve (CN VI):

supplies the ___ muscle w/ (somatic/visceral) (sensory/motor) fibers

it passes through the ___ sinus in the company of the ___ artery & enters the orbit through the ___ fissure

lateral rectus eye muscle
somatic motor fibers

cavernous sinus
internal carotid artery
superior orbital fissure

29

nerve "formula"

SO4 LR6 AR3

superior oblique - CN 4
laterla rectus - CN 6
all the rest - CN 3

30

vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII):

divisions (2)

enters the ___ meatus in the company of the ___ nerve

first division conveys (sensory/motor) information related to ___ & ___

second division conveys (sensory/motor) information related to ___

vestibular
cochlear

internal acoustic meatus
facial nerve

sensory
balance & equilibrium

sensory
hearing

31

glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX):

mixed ___ & ___ nerve

carries (pre/post-ganglionic) (symp/parasymp) fibers

nerve to the ___ branchial arch

sensory & motor

preganglionic parasympathetic fibers

third

32

glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX):

emerges from the ___ from a groove called the ___ sulcus

its sensory fibers originate from pseudounipolar neurons in its two sensory ganglia (___ & ___), which are located in the ___ foramen

it exits the skull through the ___ foramen along w/ the ___ nerve (CN ___) & the ___ nerve (CN ___)

medulla oblongata
post olivary sulcus

superior & inferior
jugular foramen

jugular foramen
vagus nerve (CN X)
accessory nerve (CN XI)

33

glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX):
major branches:

___ branch
___ nerve
(sensory/motor) branch to the ___ muscle
___ & ___ branches
___ branch

tympanic branch
carotid nerve
motor branch to the stylopharyngeus muscle
pharyngeal & tonsillar branches
lingual branch

34

glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX):
tympanic branch:

enters the ___ cavity

contains all of the (pre/post-ganglionic) (symp/parasymp) fibers of the glossopharyneal nerve & (sensory/motor) fibers for the ___ cavity

tympanic cavity

preganglionic parasympahtetic fibers
sensory fibers for the tympanic cavity

35

glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX):
tympanic branch:

the tympanic nerve plus (pre/post-ganglionic) (symp/parasymp) fibers from the superior cervical ganglion & a twig from the facial nerve form the ___ plexus within the tympanic cavity

the preganglionic parasympathetic fibers within this plexus then converge as the ___ nerve which passes out of the ___ portion of the ___ bone in the hiatus of the ___ nerve side by side w/ the ___ nerve of CN ___

postganglionic sympathetic fibers
tympanic plexus

lesser petrosal nerve
petrous portion
temporal bone
hiatus of the lesser petrosal nerve
greater petrosal nerve of CN VIII

36

glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX):
tympanic branch:

the lesser petrosal nerve then passes out of the skull through the ___ & enters the ___ fossa

it synapses in the ___ ganglion w/ (pre/post-ganglionic) (symp/parasymp) neurons

these fibers then join the ___ nerve (___) which distributes them to the ___ gland

foramen ovale
infratemporal fossa

otic ganglion
postganglionic parasympathetic neurons

auriculotemporal nerve (V3)
parotid gland

37

glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX):
carotid nerve:

carries (sensory/motor) fibers from ___ (pressure) in the ___ sinus & ___ in the ___ body

sensory fibers
baroreceptors
carotid sinus

chemoreceptors
carotid body

38

glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX):
motor branch to the stylopharyngeus muscle:

only muscle innervated by the ___ nerve

glossopharyngeal

39

glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX):
pharyngeal & tonsillar branches:

responsible for general sensation from the mucous membrane of much of the ___ & the ___

pharynx
palatine tonsils

40

glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX):
lingual branch:

general sensation for the posterior one-third of the ___

___ fibers for the posterior one-third of the ___

tongue

taste fibers
tongue

41

lesions of the glossopharyngeal nerve:

lesions of the glossopharyngeal nerve don't induce obvious symptoms assuming the ___ nerve is intact for contraction of the ___ muscles

however, intactness can be tested through the (afferent/efferent) limb of the ___ reflex (e.g., stroking the posterior one-third of the tongue w/ a spatula)

the (afferent/efferent) limb of this reflex is the ___ nerve (CN ___)

the glossopharyngeal nerve can be assessed by testing ___ on the posterior one-third of the ___

the pain referred to the middle ear experienced by a person w/ ___ is due to the fact that CN IX supplies the ___ region as well as the mucous membrane of the middle ear

vagus nerve
pharyngeal muscles

afferent limb
gag reflex

efferent limb
vagus nerve (CN X)

taste
tongue

tosnillitis
tonsillar region

42

vagus nerve (CN X):

nerve of the ___, ___, & ___ branchial arches

mixed ___ & ___ nerve & contains (pre/post-ganglionic) (symp/parasymp) fibers

emerges from the ___ form the ___ sulcus

fourth, fifth, & sixth

mixed sensory & motor
preganglionic parasympathetic

medulla oblongata
post-olivary sulcus

43

vagus nerve (CN X):

leaves the skull through the ___ foramen w/ the ___ & ___ nerves

the (sensory/motor) fibers of the vagus nerve originate from pseudounipolar neurons of the ___ & ___ ganglia, which are located in the ___ foramen

jugulra foramen
glossopharyneal & accessory nerves

sensory
superior & inferior ganglia
jugular foramen

44

vagus nerve (CN X):
major branches (8)

meningeal branch
auricular branch
pharyngeal branch
carotid branch
aortic branch
recurrent laryngeal nerves
vagal branches below the recurrent laryngeal nerves

45

vagus nerve (CN X):
major branches:
meningeal branch:

(sensory/motor) to the ___ mater in the posterior ___ fossa

actually consists of (sensory/motor) branches from the ___ nerves, which "hitchhike" on the vagus

sensory
dura mater
posterior cranial fossa

sensory
upper cervical nerves

46

vagus nerve (CN X):
major branches:
auricular branch:

supplies the ___ meatus & the external surface of the ___ membrane

important b/c irritation may initiate a ___ reflex or ___

external auditory meatus
tympanic membrane

cough reflex
nausea

47

vagus nerve (CN X):
major branches:
pharyngeal branch:

main (sensory/motor) nerve to the ___

contains (sensory/motor) fibers

this branch, along w/ the pharyngeal branch of cranial nerve IX & postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion, constitute the ___ plexus

sensory
pharynx

sensory & motor

pharyngeal plexus

48

vagus nerve (CN X):
major branches:
pharyngeal branch:

supplies (sensory/motor) fibers to all of the muscles of the ___ except the ___ & all of the muscles of the ___ except the ___

the (sensory/motor) fibers supply part of the mucosa of the ___

pharynx
stylopharngeus (CN IX)

palate
tensor of the palate (V3)

pharynx

49

vagus nerve (CN X):
major branches:
carotid branch:

caries (sensory/motor) fibers from ___ (pressure) in the ___ sinus & ___ in the ___ body

sensory
baroreceptors
carotid sinus

chemoreceptors
carotid body

50

vagus nerve (CN X):
major branches:
aortic branch:

carries (sensory/motor) fibers from ___ (pressure) in the ___ & ___ in the ___ body (adjacent to the aortic arch)

sensory
aortic baroreceptors
aortic arch

chemoreceptors
aortic body

51

vagus nerve (CN X):
major branches:
superior laryngeal branch:

divides into two branches:
- sensory: ___
- motor: ___

- internal laryngela branch
- external laryngeal branch

52

vagus nerve (CN X):
major branches:
superior laryngeal branch:
internal laryngeal nerve:

pierces the ___ membrane & supplies the lining of the ___ as far as the vocal cords

also sends branches to the ___ & the valleculae of the ___

note: the fibers proceeding to the valleculae & to the laryngeal of the epiglottis contain ___ fibers

thyrohyoid membrane
larynx

epiglottis
tongue

taste

53

vagus nerve (CN X):
major branches:
superior laryngeal branch:
external laryngeal nerve:

supplies the ___ muscle & the ___ portion of the ___

the remaining intrinsic muscles of the larynx are supplied by the ___ nerve

cricothyroid muscle
cricopharyngeus portion
inferior constrictor

recurrent laryngeal nerve

54

vagus nerve (CN X):
major branches:
recurrent laryngeal nerves:

the vagus nerves proceed in the neck within the ___ behind & between the ___ artery & the ___ vein

on the left, the vagus nerve passes in front of the ___

the left recurrent laryngeal nerve arches below & behind the ___ to the left of the ___ & ascends in the groove b/n the ___& the ___

carotid sheath
internal carotid artery
internal jugular vein

arch of the aorta

aorta
ligamentum arteriosum
trachea
esophagus

55

vagus nerve (CN X):
major branches:
recurrent laryngeal nerves:

the right recurrent laryngeal nerve originates just below the beginning of the ___ artery arching below & behind it to ascend to the ___ in the groove b/n the ___& ___

the recurrent laryngeal nerves supply motor fibers to all of the muscles of the ___ except the ___ muscle & sensory fibers to the ___ & ___ below the level of the vocal cords

subclavian artery
larynx
trachea & esophagus

larynx
cricothyroid muscle
trachea & larynx

56

vagus nerve (CN X):
major branches:
vagal branches below the recurrent laryngeal nerves:

all vagal branches below the recurrent laryngeal nerves carry (pre/post-ganglionic) (symp/parasymp) fibers & (somatic/visceral) (sensory/motor) fibers for the ___ viscera & ___ organs including the foregut & midgut derivatives

preganglionic parasympathetic fibers
visceral sensory fibers
thoracic viscera
abdominal organs

57

lesions of the vagus nerve:

symptoms of a lesion in the vagus nerve may include:
- increased ___
- constant ___
- decreased rate of ___
- a sensations of ___
- a ___, ___ voice
- difficulty ___

- increased pulse rate
- constant nausea
- decreased rate of respiratoin
- sensation of suffocation
- hoarse, low voice
- swallowing

58

lesions of the vagus nerve:

tests used to confirm a lesion of the vagus nerve include:
- the (afferent/efferent) (sensory/motor) limb of the ___ reflex (contraction of the pharyngeal constrictors upon touching the pharyngeal wall or the base of the tongue)
- faulty movement of the ___
- a paralyzed ___ on the affected side as seen w/ a laryngoscope

- efferent motor, gag
- uvula
- vocal cord

59

accessory nerve (CN XI):

considered to be the nerve of the ___ branchial arches beyond the ___

emerges from the side of the ___ cervical segments of the spinal cord b/n the ___ & ___ rootlets of the respective spinal nerves

hypothetical
sixth

upper five
dorsal & ventral

60

accessory nerve (CN XI):

ascends through the ___ & exits the skull through the ___ foramen along w/ the ___ & ___ nerves

innervates the ___ muscle & the ___ muscle

foramen magnum
jugular foramen
glossopharyngeal & vagus nerves

sternocleidomastoid muscle
trapezius muscle

61

lesion of the spinal accessory nerve:

lesion of this nerve will result in weakness in turning the ___ to the opposite side as well as sagging of the ___

head
shoulder

62

hypoglossal nerve (CN XII):

a pure (sensory/motor) nerve

emerges from the ___ form the ___ sulcus in line w/ the ___ roots of the spinal nerves

motor

medulla oblongata
pre-olivary sulcus
ventral roots

63

hypoglossal nerve (CN XII):

leaves the cranial cavity through the ___ canal

supplies all of the ___ & ___ muscles of the ___ w/ the exception of the ___, which is supplied by the vagus nerve

hypoglossal

intrinsic & extrinsic muscles of the tongue
palatoglossus

64

lesion of the hypoglossal nerve:

results in ___ & ___ of the ___ muscles of the tongue

the tongue, when protruded, turns to the (same/opposite) side of the lesion due to the unapposed action of the ___ muscle from the (affected/unaffected) side

all sensations for touch, pressure, temperature, & taste are (affected/unaffected)

paralysis & atrophy
instrinsic muscles

same
genioglossus muscle
unaffected side

unaffected

65

movements of the eyeball:

the center of the cornea or the center of the pupil is used as the anatomic (anterior/posterior) pole of the eye

all movements of the eye are then related to the direction of the movement of the pole as it rotates on any one of the three axes (3)

anterior pole

horizontal
vertical
sagittal

66

eyeball movement terminology:

movement of the eye upward: ___
movement of the eye downward: ___

movement of the eye laterally: ___
movement of the eye medially: ___

medial rotation of the upper rim of the cornea (12 o'clock position): ___
lateral rotation of the upper rim of the cornea (12 o'clock position): ___

elevation
depression

abduction
adduction

intorsion
extorsion

67

basic muscle actions of the eyeball:

b/c the ___ & ___ recti are inserted on the medial side of the vertical axis of the eyeball, they not only ___ & ___ the cornea respectively, but also ___ it medially

for the (superior/inferior) rectus muscle to raise the cornea directly upward, the (superior/inferior) oblique muscle must assist

for the (superior/inferior) rectus muscle to depress the cornea directly downward, the (superior/inferior) oblique muscle must assist

superior & inferior
raise & depress
rotate

superior
inferior

inferior
superior

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