Level 3 Muscles Overview - Lower Body Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Level 3 Muscles Overview - Lower Body Deck (21):
1

Soleus

Location:
Calf

Joint crossed:
Ankle

Action:
- raises the heel (ankle plantar flexion)

Origin:
Tibia, fibula and interosseous membrane

Insertion:
Calcaneus via the Achilles' tendon

2

Gastrocnemius

Location:
Calf

Joints crossed:
Ankle and knee

Actions:
- raises the heel (ankle plantar flexion)
- assists in bending the knee (knee flexion)

Origin:
Bottom of femur

Insertion:
Calcaneus via the Achilles' tendon

3

Rectus Femoris

Location:
Front of the thigh (one of the quadriceps)

Joints crossed:
Knee and hip

Actions:
- straightens the knee (knee extension)
- lifts the thigh (hip flexion)

Origin:
Iliac spine and top of the acetabulum (on the front of the pelvis)

Insertion:
Top of the tibia via the patella tendon

4

Vastus Intermedius

Location:
Front of the thigh (one of the quadriceps)

Joint crossed:
Knee

Action:
- straightens the knee (knee extension)

Origin:
Middle upper femur

Insertion:
Top of the tibia via the patella tendon

5

Vastus Medialis

Location:
Front inside of the thigh (one of the quadriceps)

Joint crossed:
Knee

Action:
- straightens the knee (knee extension)

Origin:
On the front medial surface of the femur

Insertion:
Top of the tibia via the patella tendon

6

Vastus Lateralis

Location:
Front outside of the thigh (one of the quadriceps)

Joints crossed:
Knee

Actions:
- straightens the knee (knee extension)

Origin:
On the front lateral surface of the femur

Insertion:
Top of the tibia via the patella tendon

7

Biceps Femoris

Location:
Back of the thigh (one of the hamstrings)

Joints crossed:
Knee and hip

Actions:
- bends the knee (knee flexion)
- helps pull the thigh backwards (hip extension)
- lateral rotation of the knee when it is flexed

Origin:
Ischium (long head)
Halfway down posterior surface of femur (short head)

Insertion:
Head of fibula

8

Semimembranosus

Location:
Back of the thigh (one of the hamstrings)

Joints crossed:
Knee and hip

Actions:
- bends the knee (knee flexion)
- helps pull the thigh backwards (hip extension)

Origin:
Ischium

Insertion:
Tibia

9

Semitendinosus

Location:
Back of the thigh (one of the hamstrings)

Joints crossed:
Knee and hip

Actions:
- bends the knee (knee flexion)
- helps pull the thigh backwards (hip extension)

Origin:
Ischium

Insertion:
Tibia

10

Iliacus

Location:
Inside surface of the pelvis

Joint crossed:
Hip

Action:
- lifts the thigh (hip flexion)

Origin:
Iliac crest and inside surface of ilium

Insertion:
Lesser trochanter of femur (shares tendon with psoas major)

11

Psoas major

Location:
Lumbar spine and across inside of pelvis

Joints crossed:
Hip and lumbar intervertebral joints

Actions:
- origin fixed: lifts the thigh (hip flexion)
- insertion fixed: pulls the trunk towards the leg (sit up movement)
- unilaterally: assists in lateral flexion of the trunk
- helps to stabilise the lumbar spine

Origin:
Vertebrae T12 - L5

Insertion:
Lesser trochanter of femur (shares tendon with Iliacus)

12

Sartorius

Location:
Front of the thigh

Joints crossed:
Hip and knee

Actions:
- lifts the thigh (hip flexion)
- lifts the thigh to the side (hip abduction)
- turns the thigh outwards (hip lateral rotation)
- assists in bending the knee (knee flexion)
- assists in turning the leg inwards (knee medial rotation)

Origin:
Anterior superior spine of pelvis

Insertion:
Anterior and medial surface of tibia, just below the condyle

13

Gluteus maximus

Location:
Behind the hip (buttocks)

Joint crossed:
Hip

Actions:
- pulls the thigh backwards (hip extension)
- turns the thigh outwards (hip lateral rotation)

Origin:
Sacrum, coccyx and posterior surface of the ilium

Insertion:
Gluteal tuberosity of femur and iliotibial band

14

Gluteus Medius

Location:
Outside of hip

Joint crossed:
Hip

Actions:
- raises thigh to the side (hip abduction)
- assists in turning the thigh inwards (hip medial rotation)
- posterior fibres assist in turning the thigh outwards (lateral rotation) when the hip is flexed

Origin:
Outer surface of the ilium

Insertion:
Laterally on top of femur (greater trochanter)

15

Gluteus Minimus

Location:
Outside of hip, deep to gluteus medius

Joint crossed:
Hip

Actions
- raises thigh to the side (hip abduction)
- assists in turning the thigh inwards (medial rotation)
- posterior fibres assist in turning the thigh outwards (lateral rotation) when the hip is flexed

Origin:
Outside surface of ilium

Insertion:
Laterally on top of femur (greater trochanter)

16

Piriformis

Location:
Outside of hip, deep to gluteus medius and minimus

Joint crossed:
Hip

Actions:
- raises thigh to the side (hip abduction)
- assists in turning the thigh outwards (hip lateral rotation)

Origin:
Anterior surface of the sacrum

Insertion:
Top of femur (greater trochanter)

17

Tensor Fascia Latae

Location:
Front outside of the hip

Joints crossed:
Hip and knee (via iliotibial band)

Actions:
- lifts the thigh (hip flexion)
- turns the thigh inwards (hip medial rotation)
- raises thigh to the side (hip abduction)

Origin:
Anterior iliac crest

Insertion:
Iliotibial band

18

Adductor Longus, Magnus and Brevis

Location:
Inside of thigh

Joint crossed:
Hip

Action:
- pulls the thigh into the body (hip adduction)

Origin:
Pubis and ischial tuberosity

Insertion:
- medial/posterior surface of femur
- adductor magnus also inserts on medial condyle of femur

19

Pectineus

Location:
Inside of the thigh

Joint crossed:
Hip

Actions:
- pulls the thigh into the body from the side (hip adduction)
- assists in turning the thigh inwards (hip medial rotation)
- assists in raising the thigh (hip flexion)

Origin:
Pubis

Insertion:
Medially on top of the femur (below lesser trochanter)

20

Gracilis

Location:
Inside of the thigh

Joints crossed:
Hip and knee

Actions:
- pulls the thigh into the body from the side (hip adduction)
- assists hamstrings in bending the knee (knee flexion)

Origin:
Pubis

Insertion:
Medial surface of tibia (just below condyle)

21

Tibialis Anterior

Location:
Front of the shin

Joints crossed:
Ankle

Action:
- raises the foot (ankle dorsi flexion)
- turns sole of the foot (inversion)

Origin:
Tibia and interosseous membrane

Insertion:
First metatarsal and first cuneiform on the underside of the foot (not visible)

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