The Abdominal Wall Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Abdominal Wall Deck (33):
1

surface anatomy of abdomen:
umbilicus

in physically fit humans, this lies in b/n bony levels L3 & L4, at the approximate midpoint b/n the xiphoid process & the pubic symphysis

2

surface anatomy of the abdomen:
pubic symphysis

occurs in a median plane, & is easily palpated

3

surface anatomy of the abdomen:
linea alba

aka white line, occurs in a median plane on the anterior abdominal surface, & divides the body into halves

a fibrous structure formed by the aponeuroses of the abdominal muscles

4

surface anatomy of the abdomen:
linea semilunaris

runs from the pubic tubercle up towards the 9th costal cartilage, & marks the lateral edge of rectus abdominis

5

surface anatomy of the abdomen:
inguinal ligament

stretches from the anterior superior iliac spine to the pubic tubercle

6

fascias of the anterior abdomen wall

can be examined once skin is removed

divided into two layers: superficial & deep

7

superficial fascia of the anterior abdomen wall: further divided into two layers

fatty - camper's fascia

membraneous - scarpa's fascia

8

deep fascia of the anterior abdomen wall

investing fascia on the muscle

9

internal abdominal oblique:

arises from the ___

the lower fibers arch over the ___ & then descends behind it to insert on the ___ & ___

thoraco-lumbar fascia, anterior 2/3 of iliac crest, & from the lateral 2/3 of the inguinal ligament

spermatic cord (round ligament), pubic crest, pectineal line

10

internal abdominal oblique:

the fibers join with the lower part of the transverse abdominal oblique to form the ___

this is deep to the ___

conjoint tendons

reflected ligament

11

internal abdominal oblique:

a bundle of fibers from the internal oblique joins the spermatic cord & forms the ___ covering of the cord & the testis

cremaster muscle & fascia

12

transversus abdominal muscle:

occupies the same territory deep to the ___

arises from the entire ___ (___, ___, & ___)

inserts on the ___

internal oblique muscle

costal arch (thoracolumbar fascia, anterior 2/3 of the inner lip of the iliac crest, lateral 1/3 of the inguinal ligament)

linea alba

13

transversus abdominal muscle:

the lower fibers of this muscle are fused w/ the internal abdominal oblique muscle to form the ___

conjoint tendon

14

rectus abdominus muscle:

revealed if a longitudinal cut is made through the ___ about 2 inches from the ___

stretches from the ___ to the ___

aponeurotic tendons
midline

pubic symphysis
costal arch

15

rectus abdominus muscle:
tendinous intersections:

___ bands running ___

located in the following sites:
- ___
- inferior end of the ___
- equidistant from ___ & ___
- b/n ___ & ___

fibrous
horizontally across the muscle which divides the muscle into sections

- umbilicus
- xiphoid process
- umbilicus & xiphoid process
- umbilicus & pubis

16

rectus abdominus muscle:

the lateral border of the rectus muscle demarcates the ___

enclosed in a sheath formed by the ___ of the external, internal, & transverse abdominal oblique muscles, called the ___

linea semilunaris

aponeurosis

rectus sheath

17

rectus sheath:

the external abdominal oblique forms the ___ wall over the entire length of the ___

anterior
rectus abdominis

18

rectus sheath:

the internal oblique aponeurosis splits at the lateral edge of the rectus muscle & one lamina fuses w/ the ___ to form the ___

the second lamina of the internal oblique aponeurosis fuses w/ the ___ to form the ___

the aponeurosis of the three muscles insert into the ___

external oblique
anterior wall of the rectus sheath

transversus abdominis
posterior sheath of the rectus muscle

linea alba

19

rectus sheath:

at a point located approximately halfway b/n the ___ & ___, both layers of the internal oblique aponeurosis are found on the anterior surface of the rectus muscle

at this same point, the ___ also courses anterior to the rectus abdominis

the anterior wall of the rectus sheath is thus complete

the posterior wall is complete only to the point 1/2 way b/n the ___ & ___ & it's ___ below this line

umbilicus
pubic crest

transversus abdominis muscle

umbilicus
pubic crest
absent

20

rectus abdominus muscle:

if the rectus abdominus is lifted out of its sheath, the posterior wall of this covering can be seen to vary in ___ in different areas

this difference is due to the manner of formation of the rectus sheath by the ___

thickness

tendons of the external, internal, & transversus abdominis muscles

21

rectus sheath:
arcuate line:

the point at which ___, ___, & ___ go ___ to the rectus abdominis

a ___ line that demarcates the lower limit of the ___ layer of the rectus sheath

where the ___ vessels perforate the rectus abdominus

external oblique
internal oblique
transversus
anterior

horizontal
posterior

inferior epigastric

22

rectus sheath:

superior to the arcuate line, the internal oblique aponeurosis splits to envelope the ___

inferior to the arcuate line, the internal oblique & trasnversus abdominis aponeuroses merge & pass ___

inferior to the arcuate line, all three muscle (external oblique, internal oblique, trasnversus) aponeuroses make up the ___ that's now only ___ to the rectus abdominis

therefore, inferior to the arcuate line, the rectus abdominis rests directly on the ___

rectus abdominis muscle

superficial to the rectus muscle

rectus sheath
anterior

transversalis fascia

23

pyramidalis muscle:

a ___, ___, & ___ muscle

fibers run from the ___ to the ___

situated in the ___ anterior to the ___

tightens the ___

small
traingular
inconsistent (absent in 20% of humans)

pubic crest, linea alba

rectus sheath
rectus abdominis muscle

linea alba

24

transversalis fascia:

a thin aponeurotic membrane which lies b/n the ___ & the ___

___ is formed within the transversalis fascia

inner surface of the transversus
extraperitoneal fat

deep inguinal ring

25

transversalis fascia:

a thin aponeurotic membrane which lies b/n the ___ & the ___

___ is formed within the transversalis fascia

inner surface of the transversus, extraperitoneal fat

deep inguinal ring

26

functions of the abdominal muscles (3)

flex the trunk

increase intra-abdominal pressure & facilitate defecation, urination, parturition

stabilize the pelvis on the trunk during normal walking

27

nerves innervating the abdominal body wall (4)

ventral primary rami
iliohypogastric nerve
illioinguinal nerves
subcostal nerve

28

external abdominal oblique muscle:

arises from the ___ to the ___ ribs

inserts by a fleshy attachment to the ___

inserts by ___ to the ___

muscular portion occupies the ___ area only

5th - 12th

iliac crest

aponeurosis
linea alba

lateral

29

external abdominal oblique muscle:

anterior portion is made up of a large ___

fibers of this from both sides of the body interdigitate w/ one another at the ___

tendinous aponeurosis

linea alba

30

external abdominal oblique muscle:

turns in the area b/n the ___ & the ___ to form the ___ & stretches between these two structures

anterior superior iliac spine
pubic tubercle
inguinal ligament

31

external abdominal oblique muscle:

from the pubic tubercle, an extension of the inguinal ligament sweeps posteriorly & laterally along the ___ (a ridge on the superior ramus of the pubic bone) to form the ___ & ___

the ___ extends from the pubic tubercle towards the linea alba

this ligament courses superiorly & medially, deep to the fibers of the external oblique muscle, & interlocks w/ ___ from the opposite side of the body

pectineal line
lacunar ligament
pectineal ligaments

reflected ligament

reflected ligament

32

external abdominal oblique muscle:

the opening in the aponeurotic tendon of the external oblique muscle is the ___

this is located above & lateral to the ___

the edges are reinforced by fibers termed:
- ___ which are located on either side
- ___ located superiorly

inferiorly, this is the ___ & the ___ part of the inguinal ligament

it is the opening of the ___

superficial inguinal ring

pubic tubercle

- medial & lateral crura
- intercrurial fibers

pubic tubercle
reflected

inguinal canal

33

external abdominal oblique muscle:

an extension of the aponeurosis forms a covering of the spermatic cord & testes called the ___

external spermatic fascia

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