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Flashcards in Tissues of the Body Deck (32):
1

4 classes of tissues that comprise human body

(1) epithelial (2) connective (3) muscular (4) nervous

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what epithelial tissues line

all sufraces of body, both internal & external, w/ exceptions of bones & joints

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cells of epithelial tissues

have very little extracellular material b/n them

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lining epithelium examples

epidermis (outer layers) of skin, endothelial lining of blood vessels, lining of digestive tract & respiratory system, & epithelial components of all serous membranes of body (mesothelium)

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secretory epithelial cells

comprise secretory components of all glands of human body

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connective tissues are characterized by

presence of relatively abundant extracellular material & relatively loosely scattered cells (at least as compared to an epithelium)

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various types of connective tissue are distinguished by

nature of their extracellular material

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extracellular material of connective tissues consist of

very specific concentrations of protein fibers & ground substance

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all fibers & ground substance of any connective tissue are collectively referred to as

connective tissue matrix

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ground substance of connective tissues consists of

proteoglycans which usually have a very high affinity for water molecules

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tendons of muscles & ligaments that join bones are ___ tissues in which ___ fibers comprise most of the ___

(1) fibrous connective (2) protein (3) extracellular matrix

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fibrous connective tissues are referred to as such because of their

high concentration of collagen protein fibers

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cartilagenous & bony tissues are highly specialized for ___ and are often classified specifically as the ___

(1) support (2) supportive connective tissues

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extracellular matrix of cartilage is comprised of

very specific concentrations of protein fibers & proteoglycan ground substance which give the cartilage great strength & resiliency

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___ is the most supportive connective tissue int eh body & possesses ___

(1) bone (2) a mineralized extracellular matrix rich in calcium phosphates

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muscle tissues are characterized by

a high degree of contractility among their constituent cells

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skeletal muscle fibers

are usually under voluntary control & function primarily to move bones at synovial joints in various lever systems

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individual skeletal muscle cells are usually ___ & are referred to as ___

(1) very long & relatively thin (2) fibers

19

due to the very specific arrangement of hte contractile proteins ___, skeletal muscle fibers have a ___ appearance as observed w/ various types of microscopy

(1) actin & myosin (2) cross banded (striated)

20

three main types of muscle tissue

(1) skeletal (2) cardiac (3) smooth

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two basic types of epithelial tissues

(1) lining epithelium (2) glandular epithelium)

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cardiac muscle cells have a ___ appearance like ___ muscle fibers, but are ___

(1) striated (2) skeletal (3) involuntary

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cardiac muscle is almost exclusively found in the

walls of the heart

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smooth muscle fibers get their name b/c they

lack the cross banded pattern of organization in their contractile proteins, hence they appear smooth when observed w/ various types of microscopy

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smooth muscle is found in

the walls of hollow organs & blood vessels

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like ___ muscle, contraction of smooth muscle fibers is ___

(1) cardiac (2) involuntary

27

nervous tissue is composed of

specialized cells called neurons which conduct electrical activity & supportive cells called neuroglia

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neurons have a cell body called the ___ which contains the ___ and very elaborate ___ machinery for the production of various ___

(1) soma or perikaryon (2) nucleus (3) cytoplasmic (4) structures & neurotransmitters

29

neurons possess two specific types of cytoplasmic extensions involved w/ electrical conduction

dendrites & axons

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dendrites

conduct electrical impulses toward the cell body of the neuron

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axons

are usually long cytoplasmic processes which conduct electrical impulses away from the cell body

32

neurons may have many ___ but always possess one and only one ___

(1) dendrites (2) axon

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