Introduction to the Lymphatic System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction to the Lymphatic System Deck (41):
1

the lymphatic system drains ___ from the body's ___ & returns it to the ___

excess fluid
tissues
bloodstream

2

the lymphatic system consists of tissues & organs which provide ___ responses

these tissues & organs include:
- ___ gland
- ___
- aggregates of ___ tissue in the ___ & ___ tracts
- ___

immunological

- thymus
- spleen
- lymphatic, respiratory, digestive
- lymph nodes

3

the lymphatic system is of vital importance to medical personnel since it may be the channel for the ___ & a conduit for the ___

spread of infection

spread of malignant disease

4

origin of interstitial fluid & lymph:

at the arterial end of a capillary bed, where the ___ pressure of the blood exceeds its ___ pressure, fluid passes ___ into the tissues

at the venous end of a capillary bed, the ___ pressure of blood exceeds its ___ pressure & the greater part of the fluid ___

the remainder of the fluid, including some high molecular weight proteins, is removed from the ___ spaces by drainage into minute lymphatic vessels called ___

hydrostatic
osmotic
out of vessels

osmotic
hydrostatic
returns to the blood

interstitial
lymphatic capillaries

5

origin of interstitial fluid & lymph:

the lymphatic capillaries begin blindly in the tissue's ___

the interstitial fluid drained into lymphatic capillaries is called ___, & the larger lymphatic vessels that conduct lymph away from a tissue are called ___

intercellular spaces

lymph
lymphatics

6

origin of interstitial fluid & lymph:

the lymph collected from a tissue or organ passes through at least one cluster of ___ before finally being emptied into the ___

lymph nodes
bloodstream

7

origin of interstitial fluid & lymph:

lymphatics conducting lymph into a cluster of lymph nodes are called ___

lymphatics draining lymph from the lymph nodes are called ___

afferent lymphatics

efferent lymphatics

8

origin of interstitial fluid & lymph:

the lymph reaches the bloodstream at the junctions of the ___ & ___ by way of the ___ & the ___

internal jugular
subclavian veins
right lymphatic duct
thoracic duct

9

origin of interstitial fluid & lymph:

in general terms, the right lymphatic duct drains:
- the right side of the ___ & ___
- the right ___
- the right side of the ___, including the right ___

all the rest of the body including both lower limbs is drained by the ___

- head & neck
- upper limb
- thorax, lung

thoracic duct

10

the thoracic duct:

begins in the ___ as a dilated sac called the ___

it lies behind the right side of the ___ on the bodies of ___ & ___ vertebrae

it ascends through the ___ & passes upward on the right side of the ___ b/n the ___ & the ___

abdomen
cysterna chili

aorta
L1 & L2

aortic hiatus
aorta
aorta
azygous vein

11

the thoracic duct:

at about the level of ___, it begins crossing toward the ___ & reaches the left border of the ___ at the level of the ___

it runs upward into the root of the ___ & empties into the ___ system at the junction of the ___ & ___

T5
left
esophagus
sternal angle

neck
venous
left subclavian
left internal jugular veins

12

the right lymphatic duct:

empties into the ___ system at the junction of the ___ & ___

venous
right internal jugular
right subclavian veins

13

the body wall & limbs:

lymphatic vessels from upper limbs converge on the ___

lymphatic vessels from the lower limbs converge on the ___

axillary nodes

inguinal nodes

14

the body wall & limbs:

lymphatic vessels from the wall of the thorax & abdomen, for the most part, drain into the ___ & ___

some vessels pierce the body wall to run to deeper nodes, particularly in the ___ wall of the ___

axillary & inguinal nodes

anterior
thorax

15

the body wall & limbs:

the watershed b/n the axillary & inguinal drainage areas is a line around the ___ at the level of the ___

the main vessels carrying lymph from the axilla are the ___, which pass proximally alongside the subclavian artery & vein

the efferent vessels from the inguinal nodes pass into the abdomen & drain into the ___

trunk
umbilicus

subclavian trunks

external iliac nodes

16

the inguinal lymph nodes:
main groups (2)

superficial inguinal nodes

deep inguinal nodes

17

superficial inguinal nodes:

lie in the ___ just below the ___

receive lymph from:
- anterior & posterior surfaces of the ___ below the ___
- the ___ including the lower half of the ___, the ___, & all of the external ___ of both sexes (except the ___)
- the ___ vessels of the ___ limb

superficial fascia
inguinal ligament

- trunk, umbilicus
- perineum, anal canal, vagina, genitalia, testes
- superficial lymph, lower

18

deep inguinal nodes:

lie along the ___ side of the ___ vein deep to the ___

receive all of the lymph from the ___ & from the ___ structures of the ___ limb

the efferent vessels from these nodes ascend through the ___ & drain into the ___

medial
femoral
fascia lata

superficial
deep
lower

femoral canal
external iliac nodes

19

the head & neck:

the final nodes draining the head & neck lie alongside the ___ & are known as the ___

the main vessels draining from these nodes on each side is the ___

like the axillary & inguinal nodes, the ___ drain skin & superficial fascia & also deeper structures

carotid sheath
deep cervical nodes

jugular trunk

deep cervical nodes

20

the deep thorax:

lymph from the lungs & pleura, the bronchi, the trachea, & the heart converge on the ___ lymph nodes

the efferents from these nodes unite w/ each other to from the ___

bronchomediastinal

bronchomediastinal trunks

21

the deep thorax:

the left jugular, subclavian, & bronchomediastinal trunks empty into the ___

the right jugular, subclavian, & bronchomediastinal trunks join the ___

individual trunks on either side may drain directly into the ___ system at the junction of the ___ & ___

thoracic duct

right lymphatic duct

venous
internal jugular
subclavian veins

22

the abdomen:

the major lymph node groups in the abdomen are arranged along the ___

these groups include the ___ nodes & the ___nodes

blood vessels

pre-aortic
para-aortic (lumbar)

23

the abdomen:
the pre-aortic nodes:

lie along the ___ of the ___ & are divided into three groups:
- ___ nodes drain the ___
- ___ nodes drain the ___
- ___ nodes drain the ___

efferents from these nodes form the ___, which contributes to the formation of the ___

front, aorta
- celiac, foregut
- superoir mesenteric, midgut
- inferior mesenteric, hindgut

intestinal trunk
cysterna chili

24

the abdomen:
the para-aortic (lumbar) nodes:

lie along the ___ borders of the ___

drain the ___, ___, & ___

lateral
aorta

kidneys
suprarenal glands
gonads

25

the abdomen:
the para-aortic (lumbar) nodes:

receive efferents from the ___

the upper nodes in this group give rise to the ___ which contribute to the formation of the ___

common iliac nodes

lumbar trunks
cysterna chili

26

the pelvis:
nodes (3)

internal iliac
external iliac
common iliac

27

the pelvis:
internal iliac nodes:

drain the organs of the ___ supplied by the ___ arteries

exceptions: the ___, ___, & ___ & ___ of the ___ drain directly into the para-aortic (lumbar) nodes

pelvis
internal iliac

gonads
uterine tube
fundus & upper body of the uterus

28

the pelvis:
external iliac nodes:

receives the efferents form the ___ & drain into the ___

inguinal nodes
common iliac nodes

29

the pelvis:
common iliac nodes:

drain into the ___

para-aortic (lumbar) nodes

30

the axillary nodes:

lymph nodes of the axilla receive & filter the lymph from the ___ & from the anterior & posterior aspects of the ___ as far distal as the ___ & the ___

they may number fewer than ___ or up to about ___ nodes

the nodes are usually subdivided by both the ___ they drain & their ___

upper limb
trunk
umbilicus
iliac crest

a dozen
three dozen

territories
location

31

the axillary nodes:
groups of axillary lymph nodes (5)

brachial (lateral) group
subscapular (posterior) group
pectoral (anterior) group
central group
apical (subclavian) group

32

brachial (lateral) group of axillary lymph nodes:

lie along the ___ side of the ___

receive most of the lymph from the ___

medial
axillary vein

upper limb

33

subscapular (posterior) group of axillary lymph nodes:

lie in front of the ___

receive lymph from the ___ & the ___

subscapularis muscle

scapular region
back

34

pectoral (anterior) group of axillary lymph nodes:

lie along the ___ border of the ___ behind the ___

receive lymph from the ___ & ___

lower
pectoralis minor muscle
pectoralis major

thoracic wall
anterior abdominal wall

35

central group of axillary lymph nodes:

lie in the ___ of the axilla in the ___

receive lymph from three groups of axillary lymph nodes: ___, ___, & ___

center
axillary fat

brachial (lateral)
subscapular (posterior)
pectoral (anterior)

36

apical (subclavian) group of axillary lymph nodes:

lie in the ___ of the axilla at the ___ border of the ___ rib

receive efferent vessels from ___

efferents from the apical group from the ___

center
lateral
first

all of the other axillary nodes

subclavian lymph trunk

37

drainage of the breast:

about ___% of the lymph in the breast courses laterally & upward to ___, ___, & ___ nodes

most of the remaining lymph passes medially to ___ nodes along the ___ vessels

some lymph drains downward to upper ___ nodes & some goes to the ___

75
axillary (mostly pectoral)
supraclavicular
infraclavicular

parasternal (internal thoracic)
internal thoracic

abdominal
opposite breast

38

drainage of the uterus:
fundus & body:

few - to ___ nodes

most - unite w/ lymphatics from the ___ & ___ passing to the ___ nodes

superficial inguinal

uterine tube
ovary
lumbar (para-aortic)

39

drainage of the uterus:
lower body & cervix:

most frequent site of ___

four nodes: ___, ___, ___, & ___

carcinoma

internal
external
common iliac
sacral

40

drainage of the vagina:

upper three-fourths - ___ nodes

lower one-fourth - ___ nodes

internal iliac

superficial inguinal

41

testes & ovaries:

to ___ nodes

para-aortic (lumbar)

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