The Trigeminal Nerve Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Trigeminal Nerve Deck (62):
1

trigeminal nerve:

the nerve of the ___

emerges from the side of the ___ & leaves the brainstem in two separate bundles (2)

first branchial arch

pons
large sensory root
small motor root

2

trigeminal nerve:

after leaving the brainstem, the two roots enter the ___ (___) in the ___ mater

the nerve spread out forming the ___ (___, ___) ganglion, which contains the (sensory/motor) neuron cell bodies (___ neurons)

trigeminal cave (Meckel's cave)
dura

trigeminal (semilunar, Gasserian)
sensory
pseudounipolar

3

trigeminal nerve:

peripheral processes of the cells in the trigeminal ganglion give rise to three divisions of the trigeminal nerve:
- ___ (purely sensory)
- ___ (purely sensory)
- ___ (sensory & motor)

opthalmic
maxillary
mandibular

4

trigeminal nerve:

has no (sympathetic/parasympathetic) component of its own, but branches of V are used as carriers for (sympathetic/parasympathetic) fibers from three cranial nerves (3)

parasympathetic
parasympathetic
III, VII, & IX

5

ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve:

continues anteriorly in the lateral wall of the ___ sinus & enters the orbit through the ___ fissure

before entering the orbit, it divides into three branches (3)

cavernous
superoir orbital

frontal
lacrimal
nasociliary

6

ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve:
frontal branch:

most (superior/inferior) structure in the orbit

divides into two branches:
- ___ branch: smaller, more medial branch, runs superior to the trochlea (pulley) of the superior oblique eye muscle
- ___ branch: larger, lateral branch, passes through the supraorbital notch or foramen

both nerves supply the ___ as far as the vertex of the skull & both also send branches to the ___

superior

- supratrochlear
- supraorbital

scalp
upper eyelid

7

ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve:
lacrimal branch:

passes along the upper edge of the ___ muscle

passes through the ___ gland giving it (sensory/motor) twigs & ends in palpebral branches to the ___

lateral rectus eye muscle

lacrimal
sensory
upper eyelid

8

ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve:
lacrimal branch:

while traveling through the orbit, it receives (preganglionic/postganglionic) (sympathetic/postsympathetic) fibers from the ___ ganglion through the ___ branch of the ___ nerve

postganglionic
parasympathetic
pterygopalatine
zygomatic
maxillary (V2)

9

ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve:
nasociliary branch:

proceeds anteromedially b/n the ___ muscle & the ___ nerve following the course of the ___ artery

gives off four branches (4)

superior rectus
optic
ophthalmic

long ciliary
posterior ethmoidal
anterior ethmoidal
infratrochlear

10

ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve:
nasociliary branch:
long ciliary branch:

major (sensory/motor) nerve to the ___ & notably the ___

sensory
eyeball
cornea

11

ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve:
nasociliary branch:
posterior ethmoidal branch:

enters the posterior ethmoidal ___

(sensory/motor) fibers to the ___ sinuses & the posterior ethmoidal ___ cells

foramen

sensory
sphenoidal air
air

12

ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve:
nasociliary branch:
anterior ethmoidal branch (larger):

enters the anterior ethmoidal ___

sends (sensory/motor) fibers to the middle & anterior ethmoidal ___ cells

next enters the ___ at the side of the ___ of the ethmoid & sends (sensory/motor) fibers to the ___

foramen

air

cranial cavity
cribriform plate
sensory
meninges

13

ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve:
nasociliary branch:
anterior ethmoidal branch (larger):

after entering the cranial cavity, it enters the ___ through the ___

within nose gives off (sensory/motor) fibers to the anterior part of the ___ & anterior parts of the (medial/lateral) walls

leaves the nasal cavity as the ___ branch, which supplies the skin of the lower half of the ___

nasal cavity
nasal slit

sensory
nasal septum
lateral

external nasal
nose

14

ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve:
nasociliary branch:
infratrochlear branch:

passes forward beneath the ___

(sensory/motor) to the side of the ___ & the medial corner of the ___

trochlea

sensory
nose
upper eyelid

15

ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve:
nasociliary branch:

immediately after the nasociliary nerve enters the orbit, it is connected to the ___ ganglion by a small twig called the ___ root of the ___ ganglion

ciliary

sensory root of the ciliary ganglion

16

ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve:
nasociliary branch:

the ciliary ganglion is said to have three roots:
- the ___ root which connects it to the nasociliray nerve
- the ___ root which conveys postganglionic sympathetic fibers through it
- the ___ (___) root which contains preganglionic parasympathetic fibers which synapse in the ganglion

sensory

sympathetic

motor (parasympathetic)

17

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:

___ (sensory/motor) fibers

enters the lateral wall of the ___ sinus & passes through the ___ to enter the ___ fossa

within the fossa, it is connected to the ___ ganglion & nerve of the ___ for exchange of fibers

general sensory fibers

cavernous
foramen rotundum
pterygopalatine

pterygopalatine
pterygoid canal

18

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
pterygopalatine ganglion:

(preganglionic/postganglionic) (sympathetic/parasympathetic) neurons

postganglionic
parasympathetic

19

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
nerve of the pterygoid canal:

greater petrosal nerve - ___ & (pre/post-ganglionic) (symp/parasymp) fibers from the ___ nerve

deep petrosal nerve - (pre/post-ganglionic) (symp/parasymp) fibers from the ___ plexus

taste
preganglionic parasympathetic
facial

postganglionic sympathetic
internal carotid

20

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:

after exchanging fibers, it proceeds through the ___ fissure to the floor of the orbit becoming the ___ nerve

it passes along the ___ groove, canal, & foramen & finally emerges on the ___

inferior orbital
infraorbital

infraorbital
face

21

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the pterygopalatine ganglion & fiber composition (3)

greater & lesser palatine nerves

posterior nasal branches & nasopalatine nerves

pharyngeal branch

22

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the pterygopalatine ganglion & fiber composition:
greater & lesser palatine nerves:

descend through the ___ & emerge through the ___ foramina to reach the hard & soft ___

palatine canals
greater & lesser palatine
palates of the mouth

23

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the pterygopalatine ganglion & fiber composition:
greater & lesser palatine nerves:

general sensory fibers from ___

postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the ___ ganglion

taste fibers from the ___ branch of the ___ nerve for taste buds in the roof of the mouth

cells of origin of the taste fibers are in the ___ ganglion of the ___ nerve

postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the ___ nerve

maxillary nerve (V2)

pterygopalatine

greater petrosal
facial

geniculate
facial

deep petrosal

24

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the pterygopalatine ganglion & fiber composition:
posterior nasal branches & nasopalatine nerves:

upper posterior nasal & nasopalatine nerves - pass into the nasal cavity via the ___ foramen

lower posterior nasal nerves - originate from the ___ nerve as it descends in the ___; they pass through small bony foramina to enter the ___

sphenopalatine

greater palatine
greater palatine canal
nasal cavity

25

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the pterygopalatine ganglion & fiber composition:
posterior nasal branches & nasopalatine nerves:

posterior nasal branches supply the posterior part of the ___ & posterior walls of the ___

the nasopalatine nerve proceeds antero-inferiorly through the ___ (supplying it) & enters the mouth through the ___ foramen behind the ___ teeth to supply a small anterior portion of the ___ palate

nasal septum
nasal cavity

nasal septum
incisive
upper incisor
hard

26

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the pterygopalatine ganglion & fiber composition:
posterior nasal branches & nasopalatine nerves:

general sensory fibers from ___

postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the ___ ganglion

postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the ___ nerve

maxillary nerve (V2)

pterygopalatine

deep petrosal

27

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the pterygopalatine ganglion & fiber composition:
pharyngeal branch:

passes posteriorly from the ___ ganglion & leaves the ___ fossa through the ___

supplies the ___ & glands of the ___

pterygopalatine
pterygopalatine
palatovaginal (pharyngeal) canal

mucosa
nasopharynx

28

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the pterygopalatine ganglion & fiber composition:
pharyngeal branch:

general sensory fibers from ___

postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the ___ ganglion

postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the ___ nerve

maxillary nerve (V2)

pterygopalatine

deep petrosal

29

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the main trunk of the maxillary nerve & infraorbital nerve:
orbital branches:

small branches passing through the ___ fissure & contribute to the supply of the ___

they then contribute to the supply of the ___, ___, & ___ air sinuses

inferior orbital
orbital wall

ethmoidal
sphenoidal
frontal

30

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the main trunk of the maxillary nerve & infraorbital nerve:
fiber types of the orbital branches:

general sensory fibers from ___

postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the ___ ganglion

postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the ___ nerve

maxillary nerve (V2)

pterygopalatine

deep petrosal

31

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the main trunk of the maxillary nerve & infraorbital nerve:
zygomatic branch:

arises from the ___ nerve within the ___ fossa

it passes into the orbit & splits into ___ & ___ branches which are sensory to the ___ & ___ regions of the face

also receives postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the ___ ganglion, which it hands over to the ___ nerve of ___

maxillary
pterygopalatine

zygomaticofacial & zygomaticotemporal
zygomatic & temporal

pterygopalatine
lacrimal nerve of V1

32

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the main trunk of the maxillary nerve & infraorbital nerve:
superior alveolar nerves (3)

these nerves intermingle, forming a ___ before innervating the upper teeth

posterior
middle
anterior

dental plexus

33

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the main trunk of the maxillary nerve & infraorbital nerve:
posterior superior alveolar nerve:

arises from the main trunk of the ___ nerve while in the ___ fossa

supplies the mucous membrane of the ___ sinuses & upper ___ teeth

maxillary
pterygopalatine

maxillary
molar

34

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the main trunk of the maxillary nerve & infraorbital nerve:
middle superior alveolar nerve:

arises from the ___ nerve within the ___ groove or canal

supplies the mucous membrane of the ___ sinuses & upper ___ teeth

infraorbital
infraorbital

maxillary
premolar

35

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the main trunk of the maxillary nerve & infraorbital nerve:
anterior superior alveolar nerve:

arises from the ___ nerve in the anterior part of the ___ canal

supplies the mucous membrane of the ___ sinuses & the upper three ___ teeth

infraorbital
infraorbital

maxillary
anterior

36

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the main trunk of the maxillary nerve & infraorbital nerve:
fiber types of the superior alveolar nerves:

general sensory fibers from ___

postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the ___ ganglion

postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the ___ nerve

maxillary nerve (V2)

pterygopalatine

deep petrosal

37

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the main trunk of the maxillary nerve & infraorbital nerve:
infraorbital nerve:

(smallest/largest) & ___ branch of the maxillary division

supplies:
- lower ___
- side of the ___
- upper ___
- front of the ___
- ___ vestibule

largest
terminal

- eyelid
- nose
- lip
- cheek
- nasal

38

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches arising from the main trunk of the maxillary nerve & infraorbital nerve:
fiber types of the infraorbital nerve:

general sensory fibers from ___

postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the ___ nerve

maxillary nerve (V2)

deep petrosal

39

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:

receives the whole (sensory/motor) root of the ___ nerve, but is still overwhelmingly (sensory/motor) int he total fiber content

leaves the skull through the ___ & enters the ___ fossa where it is connected to a (symp/parasymp) ganglion, the ___ ganglion

motor
trigeminal
sensory

foramen ovale
infratemporal
parasympathetic
otic

40

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:

the motor branches supply the:
- muscles of ___
- ___ & ___ belly of the ___ muscle
- tensor of the ___
- tensor ___

- muscles of mastication
- mylohyoid & anterior belly of the digastric muscle
- tensor of the palate
- tensor tympani

41

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:

the motor branches to the mylohyoid & anterior belly of the digastric are carried by the ___ branch & leave it just before it enters the ___ foramen

inferior alveolar
inferior alveolar

42

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches of the main trunk (2)

meningeal branch (nervus spinosus)

medial pterygoid nerve

43

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
meningeal branch (nervus spinosus):

enters the skull through the ___ w/ the ___ artery

supplies the dura of the ___ fossa & the ___ cells

foramen spinosum
middle meningeal

middle cranial
mastoid air

44

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
medial pterygoid nerve:

enters the deep surface of the ___ muscle & supplies it

gives off two branches:
- nerve to the tensor ___
- nerve to the tensor ___

medial pterygoid

- tympani
- of the palate

45

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:

branches from the anterior division (4)

primarily (sensory/motor) supply w/ some (sensory/motor) fibers

masseteric nerve
deep temporal nerves (anterior & posterior)
lateral pterygoid nerve
long buccal nerve

motor
sensory

46

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches from the anterior division:
masseteric nerve:

passes through the ___ to supply the ___ muscle

gives a (sensory/motor) twig to the ___ joint

mandibular notch
masseter

sensory
temporomandibular

47

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches from the anterior division:
deep temporal nerves (anterior & posterior):

supply the ___ muscle

gives a (sensory/motor) twig to the ___ joint

temporalis

sensory
temporomandibular

48

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches from the anterior division:
lateral pterygoid nerve:

supplies the ___ muscle

lateral pterygoid

49

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches from the anterior division:
long buccal nerve:

passes laterally b/n the two heads of the ___ muscle

descends over the ___ muscle

supplies the mucous membrane of the ___ & ___ (molar area) & the skin of the overlying ___

lateral pterygoid

buccinator

cheek & gums
cheek

50

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:

branches from the posterior division (3)

mainly (sensory/motor) except for the ___ nerve

auriculotemporal nerve
inferior alveolar nerve
lingual nerve

sensory
mylohyoid

51

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches from the posterior division:
auriculotemporal nerve:

runs posteriorly & splits around the ___ artery, reforms & runs through the ___ gland to be distributed to the external ___ & ___ over the ___region

while in the substance of the ___ gland it delivers (pre/post-ganglionic) (symp/parasymp) fibers it received from the ___ ganglion

middle meningeal
parotid
ear & scalp
temporal

parotid
postganglionic
parasympathetic
otic

52

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches from the posterior division:
auriculotemporal nerve:
parasympathetic pathway:

___ nerve
___ branch
___ nerve
(___)
___ ganglion
___ nerve
___ gland

glossopharyngeal nerve
tympanic branch
lesser petrosal nerve
(foramen ovale)
otic ganglion
auriculotemporal nerve
parotid gland

53

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches from the posterior division:
auriculotemporal nerve:
branches:

___ joint (main supply)
___ gland (parasympathetic from CN ___)
___ meatus
___ membrane
anterior portion of the ___
skin covering the ___

temporomandibular joint (main supply)
parotid gland (parasympathetic from CN IX)
external auditory meatus
tympanic membrane
anterior portion of the external ear
skin covering the temporal fossa

54

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches from the posterior division:
inferior alveolar nerve:

contains ___ sensory & motor fibers

enters the ___ foramen (after giving off the nerve to the ___)

the main trunk of the inferior alveolar nerve supplies the ___ & ___ teeth

general

mandibular
mylohyoid

molar & premolar

55

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches from the posterior division:
inferior alveolar nerve:

the nerve divides into two terminal branches within the ___ canal (2)

the ___ branch supplies the ___ muscle & the anterior belly of the digastric

mandibular

mental nerve
incisive nerve

mylohyoid
mylohyoid

56

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches from the posterior division:
inferior alveolar nerve:
mental nerve:

passes out the ___ foramen

supplies:
- skin of the ___ & ___
- mucous membrane of the ___
- gingiva associated w/ the buccal side of the ___, ___, & ___ teeth

mental

- lower lip & chin
- lower lip
- mandibular incisor, canine, & premolar

57

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches from the posterior division:
inferior alveolar nerve:
incisive nerve:

supplies the ___ & ___ teeth

lower canine
incisor

58

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches from the posterior division:
lingual nerve:

contains ___ (sensory/motor) fibers for the anterior two-thirds of the ___, the ___, & the floor of the ___

joined by the ___ of the ___ nerve, which contains:
- (pre/post-ganglionic) (symp/parasymp) fibers
- ___ fibers for the ___ of the anterior two-thirds of the ___ (___ papillae)

general sensory
tongue
lingual gingiva
mouth

chorda tympani
facial
- preganglionic parasympathetic
- taste, taste buds, tongue (fungiform)

59

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches from the posterior division:
lingual nerve:
course of the chorda tympani:

leaves the ___ nerve while it runs in the ___ canal

next, it runs along the lateral wall of the ___ cavity & emerges through the ___ fissure to join the ___ nerve

facial nerve
facial canal

tympanic cavity
petrotympanic fissure
lingual nerve

60

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches from the posterior division:
lingual nerve:
course of the lingual nerve:

during its course, it's closely related to the ___ tooth & can be damaged during ___ of the tooth

while crossing the floor of the mouth, it is closely related to the ___

third molar
extraction

submandibular duct

61

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve:
branches from the posterior division:
lingual nerve:
parasympathetic fibers:

the presympathetic (symp/parasymp) fibers of the chorda tympani depart from the ___ nerve in the region of the ___ ganglion

they synapse w/ postganglionic (symp/parasymp) neurons in the ___ganglion, which is connected to the ___ nerve

postganglionic (symp/parasymp) fibers either proceed to the ___ gland or join the ___ nerve via communicating branches to end in the ___ & ___ glands

parasympathetic fibers
lingual nerve
submandibular ganglion

parasympathetic
submandibular ganglion
lingual nerve

parasympathetic
submandibular gland
lingual nerve
sublingual & lingual salivary glands

62

lesion of the trigeminal nerve:

loss of ___ sensation & deviation of the ___ toward the side of the lesion due to weakness of the muscles of ___

trigeminal ___ (tic douloureau) is a common occurrence

this may involve the entire nerve or divisions only

this most commonly effects the ___ division

pain may be referred from one branch of the trigeminal to another

for example, pain from an infectd tooth may be referred to the ___ & ___ joint

facial
jaw
mastication

neuroalgia

maxillary

ear & temporomandibular joint

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