The Organization of the Neck II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Organization of the Neck II Deck (51):
1

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:

deep to the superficial fascia, the deep fascia is organized into several distinct layers (4)

investing
prevertebral
pretracheal
carotid sheath

2

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:

the investing layer surrounds all of the important structures in the ___

the prevertebral layer surrounds the ___ & the ___ closely connected w/ it

the pretracheal layer forms a ___ compartment around the ___

the carotid sheath forms a ___ compartment

neck

vertebral column
muscles

visceral
chief viscera

neruovascular

3

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:
investing fascia:

completely encircles the neck & splits to enclose the ___ & ___ muscles

also splits to enclose the ___ gland

sternocleidomastoid
trapezius

parotid

4

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:
investing fascia:

forms a thickening on the deep surface of the parotid b/n the styloid process & mandible: ___ ligament

this effectively separates the ___ from the ___ gland

stylomandibular

parotid
submandibular

5

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:
investing fascia:

the ___ & ___ veins & ___ branches of the ___ plexus (4) all pierce the investing layer of deep cervical fascia

external & anterior jugular veins

cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus
- lesser occipital
- great auricular
- transverse cervical
- supraclavicular

6

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:
investing fascia:

immediately above the manubrium, the layer splits to form a small suprasternal space (of ___) which contains the ___, a venous connection b/n the two ___ veins

Burns
jugular arch
anterior jugular

7

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:
pretracheal fascia:

encloses the structures in a visceral compartment of the neck (5)

thyroid gland
trachea
esophagus
pharynx
larynx

8

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:
pretracheal fascia:

forms a complete fascial sheath for the ___ deep to the strap muscles

the deep layer of this envelope encircles the ___ & ___

thyroid gland

larynx
trachea

9

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:
pretracheal fascia:

the posterior portion of the pretracheal fascia is called the ___ (___) fascia, which separates the esophagus from the ___ fascia

buccopharyngeal (visceral)

prevertebral

10

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:
prevertebral fascia:

cylindrical layer of fascia that surrounds the ___ & the ___ associated w/ it (3)

it also form s the fascial floor of the ___ of the neck

vertebral column

muscles
- prevertebral muscles
- scalenes
- deep muscles of the back of the neck

posterior triangle

11

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:
prevertebral fascia:

___ sheath - extension of the prevertebral fascia surrounding the ___ artery & ___ plexus as they emerge from b/n the scalenus anterior & scalenus medius

axillary

subclavian
brachial

12

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:
prevertebral fascia:

attaches to the ___ processes & splits into lamina (2)

transverse

anterior lamina (alar fascia)
posterior lamina

13

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:
prevertebral fascia:
anterior lamina (alar fascia):

ends by blending w/ the fascia on the ___ wall of the ___ at about ___ level

posterior
esophagus
T2

14

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:
prevertebral fascia:
posterior lamina:

continues down along the front of the ___ portion of the vertebral column to the ___

thoracic
diaphragm

15

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:
prevertebral fascia:
retropharyngeal space:

(anterior/posterior) space

space immediately behind the ___ & ___

limited inferiorly by the attachment of the ___ fascia to the ___

anterior

pharynx
esophagus

alar
esophagus

16

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:
prevertebral fascia:
danger space:

(anterior/posterior) space

potential space b/n the two layers of prevertebral fascia in front of the ___

extends downward throughout the ___ to the ___

posterior

vertebral column

thorax
diaphragm

17

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:
carotid sheath:

condensation of fascia round the ___ of the neck

receives contributions from the ___, ___, & ___ layers

___ lies behind the carotid sheath b/n the carotid sheath & the prevertebral fascia

great vessels

investing
pretracheal
prevertebral

cervical sympathetic trunk

18

compartments & fascial planes of the neck:
carotid sheath contents:

___ vein (anterolateral)
___ & ___ arteries (anteromedial)
___ nerve (posteroir)
___ lymph nodes (along internal jugular vein)
___ - may be found on the surface of, embedded in, or within the carotid sheath

internal jugular vein
common & internal carotid arteries
vagus nerve
deep cervical lymph nodes
ansa cervicalis

19

major blood vessels of the neck:

the blood supply of the head & neck & the upper limbs are derived from arteries that branch from the ___

aortic arch

20

major blood vessels of the neck:
branches of the aortic arch (3)

brachiocephalic trunk
left common carotid artery
left subclavian

21

major blood vessels of the neck:

the brachiocephalic trunk divides behind the right ___ joint into the ___ & ___

sternoclavicular

right common carotid artery
right subclavian artery

22

major blood vessels of the neck:
the subclavian arteries:

each artery arches upward, backward, & laterally over the ___ & ___

pleurae
lung

23

major blood vessels of the neck:
the subclavian arteries:

the arteries are divided into three parts by the ___ muscle:
- 1st part: ___ to the muscle
- 2nd part: ___ the muscle
- 3rd part: ___ to the muscle

the 3rd part lies in front of the ___ of the brachial plexus & behind the ___

scalenus anterior
- medial
- behind
- lateral

inferior trunk
subclavian vein

24

major blood vessels of the neck:
branches of the subclavian artery:

medial to lateral (4)

note: these branches are usually derived form the ___ part of the subclavian artery, but branches may arise from the other segments

vertebral artery
thyrocervical trunk
internal thoracic artery
costocervical trunk

first

25

major blood vessels of the neck:
branches of the subclavian artery:
vertebral artery:

runs upward & posteriorly & enters the ___

the ___ ganglion lies posterior to its origin

note: left may arise from the ___

transverse foramen of C6

cervicothracic (stellate)

aortic arch

26

major blood vessels of the neck:
branches of the subclavian artery:
normal branches of thyrocervical trunk (3)

inferior thyroid artery
transverse cervical artery
suprascapular artery

27

major blood vessels of the neck:
branches of the subclavian artery:
thyrocervical trunk:
inferior thyroid artery:

runs upward in front of the ___ muscle, then medially, posterior to the ___ & terminates on the posterior surface of the ___ gland

important branches:
- ___ artery: accompanies recurrent laryngeal nerve to the larynx
- ___ artery: runs anterior to the prevertebral muscles

scalenus anterior
carotid sheath
thyroid

- inferior laryngeal
- ascending cervical

28

major blood vessels of the neck:
branches of the subclavian artery:
thyrocervical trunk:
transverse cervical artery & suprascapular artery:

supply muscles related to the ___

upper extremities

29

major blood vessels of the neck:
branches of the subclavian artery:
internal thoracic (mammary) artery:

arises from the (superior/inferior) aspect of the subclavian artery at the level of the ___

inferior

thyrocervical trunk

30

major blood vessels of the neck:
branches of the subclavian artery:
costocervical trunk:

arises from the (anterior/posterior) surface of the subclavian & courses posterosuperiorly

branches:
- ___ artery: posterior intercostal arteries for the upper two intercostal spaces
- ___ artery: ascends on the back of the neck & anastomoses w/ the descending branch of the occipital artery

posterior

- supreme intercostal
- deep cervical

31

major blood vessels of the neck:
carotid arteries:

the right common carotid artery begins at the bifurcation of the brachiocephalic trunk behind the ___

the left common carotid artery arises from the arch of the aorta & ascends into the neck behind the ___

each common carotid ascends within the carotid sheath to the level of the ___ border of the ___ cartilage where it divides into the ___ & ___ carotid arteries

right sternoclavicular joint

left sternoclavicular joint

superior border of the thyroid cartilage
internal & external

32

major blood vessels of the neck:
carotid arteries:
carotid sinus:

dilation of the ___ & first part of the ___

specialized pressure receptors: ___ (CN ___ & ___)

carotid bifurcation
internal carotid

baroreceptors (IX & X)

33

major blood vessels of the neck:
carotid arteries:
carotid body:

small reddish brown ___ mass behind the ___

specialized receptors monitoring oxygen levels: ___ (CN ___ & ___)

epithelial
bifurcation of the common carotid

chemoreceptors (IX & X)

34

major blood vessels of the neck:
carotid arteries:
internal carotid:

originates posterior or posterolateral to the ___

ascends more (medially/laterally) & enters the ___ of the skull

no branches in the ___

external carotid

medially
carotid canal

neck

35

major blood vessels of the neck:
carotid arteries:
branches of the external carotid (8)

superior thyroid
lingual
facial
ascending pharyngeal
occipital
posterior auricular
maxillary
superficial temporal

36

major blood vessels of the neck:
carotid arteries:
external carotid:
superior thyroid artery:

first (anterior/posterior) branch

passes downward & runs superficial & parallel to the ___ nerve

reaches the superior pole of the ___ gland

gives off the ___ artery which pierces the ___ membrane w/ the ___ nerve

anterior

external laryngeal

thyroid

superior laryngeal
thyrohyoid
internal laryngeal

37

major blood vessels of the neck:
carotid arteries:
external carotid:
lingual artery:

(anterior/posterior) branch given off just superior to the ___ artery (may arise from a common stem w/ the ___)

grooves the ___ gland & hooks around the ___ at the anterior border of the ___ muscle

lingual
lingual

submandibular
mandible
masseter

38

major blood vessels of the neck:
carotid arteries:
external carotid:
ascending pharyngeal artery:

arises from the (medial/lateral) surface of the external carotid usually b/n the origins of the ___ & ___ arteries

ascends on the posterolateral wall of the ___ which it supplies

medial
superior thyroid
lingual

pharynx

39

major blood vessels of the neck:
carotid arteries:
external carotid:
occipital artery:

(anterior/posterior) branch given off approximately at the same level as the origin of the ___ artery

the ___ nerve hooks around the occipital artery close to its origin

passes posterioly & supplies the scalp w/ the ___ nerve

posterior
facial

hypoglossal

greater occipital

40

major blood vessels of the neck:
carotid arteries:
external carotid:
posterior auricular artery:

(anterior/posterior) branch which ascends behind the ___

runs upward & backward to be distributed behind the ___

posterior
ear

ear

41

major blood vessels of the neck:
carotid arteries:
external carotid:
maxillary artery:

___ branch of the external carotid arising behind the ___

gives off 17 or 18 named branches to the ___, ___, & ___ areas

terminal
neck of the mandible

jaws
palate
nasal

42

major blood vessels of the neck:
carotid arteries:
external carotid:
superficial temporal artery:

___ branch which is the continuation of the external carotid beyond the ___ artery

supplies the ___, side of head in front of ear

terminal
maxillary

external acoustic meatus

43

the cervical plexus:

formed by the ventral rami of ___ nerves ___

the rami are joined by connecting branches which form loops that lie in front of the origins of the ___ & ___ muscle

cervical
C1 - C4

levator scapulae
scalenus medius muscle

44

the cervical plexus:
branches:
cutaneous branches (4)

lesser occipital
grater auricular
transverse cervical
supraclavicular

45

the cervical plexus:
branches:
ansa cervicalis

formed from ___ & ___ roots

a branch of ___ joins the ___ nerve

some of these fibers leave this nerve as the ___ of the ansa cervicalis

superior
inferior

C1
hypoglossal

superior root

46

the cervical plexus:
branches:
ansa cervicalis:

the superior root descends & unites w/ the ___ (C2, C3) completing the ansa cervicalis

the ansa cervicalis supplies the ___, ___, & ___

the remaining C1 fibers traveling w/ the hypoglossal nerve leave it as the nerve to the ___ & nerve to the ___

inferior root

sternohyoid
sternothyroid
omohyoid

thyrohyoid
geniohyoid

47

the cervical plexus:
branches (3 main)

cutaneous branches
ansa cervicalis
phrenic nerve

48

the cervical plexus:
branches:
phrenic nerve

from spinal cord levels ___

C3
C4
C5

49

the cervical plexus:
other branches:

motor (1)

propreioceptive (3)

prevertebral

sternocleidomastoid
levator scapulae
trapezius

50

the thyroid & parathyroid glands:
thyroid gland:

two large lobes of the thyroid gland lie anterolateral to the ___ & ___

the ___ unites them across the front of the ___ immediately below the ___

trachea
larynx

isthmus
trachea
larynx

51

the thyroid & parathyroid glands:
thyroid gland:

sometimes a pointed process, the ___, points upward from the isthmus, usually close to the anterior midline

this may attach by connective tissue to the ___ cartilage or may even extend up to attach to the ___ bone

on the posterior surface, the lobes of the thyroid are attached by dense connective tissue to the ___ cartilage & several of the upper ___

pyramidal lobe

thyroid
hyoid

cricoid
tracheal rings

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