Invasive Clostridia - Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Invasive Clostridia - Exam 2 Deck (63):
1

True/False. C. perfringes is motile by petrichious flagella.

False. 

C. perfringes is non-motile, but other clostridia are motile by petrichious flagella.

2

What are the diseases caused by invasive clostridium?

Histotoxic (tissue) and enterotoxacemias (GI tract) diseases

C. perfringens, C. difficile, C. novyi, C. haemolyticum, C. septicum, C. chauvoei, C. sordelii

3

Which invasive clostridium is the most frequently isolated pathogenic bacterium?

C. perfringens

4

What diseases are caused by non-invasive clostridium?

Neurotoxic diseases

C. botulinum and C. tetani

5

How many toxins does C. perfringens produce? What are they?

5 types of toxins

Alpha toxin

Beta toxin

Epsilon toxin

Iota toxin

Perfringolysin (theta toxin)

6

What type of toxin is produced during sporulation for Type A C. Perfringens?

Produced by 10% of C. perfringens

Enterotoxin

7

How many types of C. perfringens are present in animal diseases?

5

A, B, C, D, E

8

What is the reservior for C. perfringens?

Intestinal tract of humans and animals

Survival in soil is variable

9

How is C. perfringens generally transmitted?

Ingestion and wound infection

10

Which type of invasive clostridia is a great differential diagnosis to the following diseases:

Malginant edema

Black leg

Big head of rams

C. perfringens Type A 

11

Which toxin is most important to a Type A C. perfringens wound infection?

Alpha toxin!

The capsule and perfingolysin O play a big role also

12

Which toxin produced by C. perfringens causes hemolysis, necrosis and lethality?

Alpha toxin

Produced by ALL C. Perfringens

13

What conditions would you expect to see with a Type A. C. perfringens wound infection?

Anaerobic cellulitis and gas gangrene

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14

Which toxin produced by C. perfringens forms pores in instestinal epithelial cells and endothelial cells?

Beta toxin

15

What in colostrum favors the action of the beta toxin produced by C. perfringens?

Protease (trypsin) inhibitors

16

Which type of toxin produced by C. perfringens is necrotizing and lethal in epithelial and endothelial cells?

Epsilon toxin

17

Where does the epsilon toxin of C. perfringens concentrate? What activates it?

Concentrates in the brain and kidney (damages microvasculature)

Activated by trypsin

18

Which toxin produced by C. perfringens affects the cellular cytoskeleton and results in death of the affected cell?

Iota toxin

19

Which toxin produced by C. perfringens causes fluid and electrolyte abnormalities?

Enterotoxin

20

Which toxin produced by C. perfringens is important for escaping the phagolysosome?

Perfringolysin O (theta toxin)

21

What are the important toxins for Type A C. perfringens enterotoxemia?

Alpha-toxin 

Perfringlolysin O

Enterotoxins 

22

What disease does Type A C. perfringens entertoxemia cause?

Yellow lamb diseases

(outbreaks of gastritis and hemolytic diseases of ruminants)

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23

Which toxin of C. perfringens is the principle factor for producing hemorrhagic enteritis in the small intestine? Which type of C. perfringens is this toxin the principle factor for?

Beta toxin (Dont forget: SUSCEPTIBLE TO TRYPSIN!)

Type B C. perfringens enterotoxemia

24

Which disease is caused by Type B C. perfringens enterotoxemia?

Causes lamb dysentery in newborn lambs

25

Who is most suscepitble to Type C C. perfringens entertoxemia? What does this type cause? 

Neonatal calves, foals, piglets, and lambs WORLDWIDE

Causes hemorrhagic enteritis

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26

What is the principle virulence factor for Type C C. perfringens entertoxemia?

Beta toxin

27

Which type of entertoxemia of C. perfringens causes "struck" in older sheep? 

Type C enterotoxemia

Fatal toxemia-bacteremia

Beta-toxin plays the main role

Impression is that the animal has been struck by lightning

28

Which type of C. perfringens enterotoxemia is associated with overeating and pulp kidney diseases in older lambs?

Type D enterotoxemia 

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29

Which toxin is an important virulence factor for type D C. perfringens enterotoxemia?

Epsilon toxin (predilection for older animals and activated by trypsin)

30

What effects do Type D C. perfringens entertoxemia have on the CNS?

Epsilon toxin will cause encephalomalacia

Head pressing is common

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31

What is one of the most common food related diseases in humans?

Nonenterotoxemic diarrhea

32

What is the main cause of nonenterotoxemic diarrhea?

Interaction of enterotoxin (from C. perfringens) with epithelial cells of the small intestine following sporulation of the microorganisms in that environment

33

Why does C. perfringens mostly affect younger animals?

The infantile digestive tract lacks enzymes to inactivate toxin. 

34

Where does the pathogenic strain of C. perfringens survive?

In the soil

35

What kind of hemolysis would you expect to see on a blood agar plate inoculated with C. perfringens?

Double-zone hemolysis

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36

What reaction is characteristic of C. perfringens and what does it detect?

Nagler's reaction

Detects lecithinase activity 

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37

Which invasive clostridium shows adhesion to target cells in the large intestine?

C. difficile

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38

Which virulence factor of C. difficile stimulates the influx of polymorphonuclear cells? What is the result?

Enterotoxin toxin A

Results in diarrhea

39

What is the reservoir for C. difficile?

Intestinal tract of normal and clinically affected animals

40

What causes the disruption of normal flora and colonization of C. difficile?

A "trigger" event

Antibiotics, chemotherapy, stress, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

41

Which antibiotic does C. difficile respond rapidly to?

Metronidazole

42

What are the conditions you would expect to see with Type A C. novyi?

Gas gangrene

Big head

43

True/False. There are two main types of C. novyi which are very similar.

False. 

There are two main types (A and B) which differ biochemically, epidemiologically and pathogenically.

44

What is the main toxin produced by both types of C. novyi?

Alpha toxin

CELL DEATH!

45

Which toxins are produced by C. novyi Type A?

Alpha toxin and novyliysin (delta toxin)

46

Which toxin is produced by C. novyi Type B? 

Alpha and Beta toxin

47

Which type of C. novyi causes black diseases?

Type B 

Black diseases - subcutaneous venous congestion secondary to pericardial edema darkens the underside of the skin

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48

True/False. Type A and B C. novyi are found in normal instestine and liver of herbivores.

True

49

How is C. novyi transmitted?

All types enter their hosts by ingestion or wound infection.

50

What is the most distinguishing feature of sudden death in sows caused by Type B C. Novyi?

The liver uniformly infiltrated with gas bubbles

Presenting a spongy appearance on the cut surface

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51

Which parasite does the distribution of black diseases largely coincide with?

Fasciola hepatica

52

Which clostridium resembles C. novyi Type B phenotypically and in disease pattern?

C. haemolyticum

53

What is the main virulence factor of C. haemolyticum? What does it produce?

Phospholipase C toxin (beta toxin)

Produces hemolytic crisis and acute death

54

Which invasive clostridium causes bacillary hemogolbinuria or "red water" diseases of ruminants?

C. haemolyticum

55

Which clostridium is the leading cause of wound infections of farm animals?

C. septcium

56

What is the main virulence factor of C. septicum?

Alpha toxin

57

Which clostridium causes a fatal cold weather disease of sheep? What is the disease called?

C. septicum 

Braxy or bradsot disease

58

Which clostridium causes malignant edema?

C. septicum 

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59

Which clostridium produces an emphysematous necrotizing myositis in cattle? 

AKA BLACK LEG

C. CHAUVOEI

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60

Which clostridium causes Tyzzer's disease?

C. piliforme

Acute fatal diarrheal disease in lab mice with focal liver necrosis 

Also in foals

61

Which clostridium causes fatal myositis and hepatic diseases in ruminants and horses?

C. sordelli

62

Which clostridium causes quail disease?

C. colinum

Ulcerative enteritis and necrotizing hepatitis of several species of fowl

63

Which clostridium causes juvenile enteritis in rabbits?

C. spiroforme

Also antibiotic induced enteritis in rabbits