Which neurotransmitter does botulinum toxin block the release of?
Which neurotransmitter does tetanus toxin block the release of?
GABA and glycine
What is the condition of neuroparalytic intoxication characterized by flaccid paralysis?
Which species is C. botulinum mainly seen in?
Ruminants, horses, mink, and waterfowl
How does the botulinum neurotoxin work on nerve cells?
Zinc endopeptidases bind to cholinergic nerve cells, decreases the release of Ach
How is C. botulinum transmitted?
When animals die, the spores (common in gut and tissues) germinate and generate toxin, which may be ingested by carrion eaters or contaminated environment
What are the clincal signs of botulism?
Muscular incoordination leading to:
Extrusion of the tongue
Disturbances in food prehension, chewing, and swallowing
Which types of C. botulinum are found in all soils?
Types A and B
Which types of C. botulinum predominate in all animals?
Types C and D
What is the source of outbreak of C. botulinum?
Deat cat or rodents in feed
Also chicken manure when used as a cattle feed supplement
Which types of C. botulinum are linked to aquatic sediments?
C, D, E, and F
Which type of botulinum is associated with tainted meat (milk rances) and contaminated fish food (fish hatcheries)?
What is an initial clinical sign of botulism?
Which type of botulinum is linked to phosphorous diet defiencies?
What does the diagnosis of botulism require?
Demonstration of the toxin in the plasma or tissue before death or from a fresh carcass
What is the only accepted method of confirmation for diagnosis of botulism?
Toxin is extracted from material and injected into guinea pigs or mice
What is the cause of death due to botulism?
What is the condition of neuroparalytic intoxication charactered by tonic-clonic convulsions?
How do animals get tetanus?
Results from inoculation of a traumatic wound with spores
Who is susceptible to tetanus?
ALL MAMMALS! but to varying degrees
Horses and humans, ruminants and swine more susceptible than carnivores
Poultry highly resistant
Mortality rate is high
How does tetanospasmin (tetanus toxin) work on neurons?
Zinc endopeptisdase binds to neurons, which release GABA and glycine, the major inhibitory neurotransmitters
What does tetanus use to hydrolyze docking protein?
Why is the tetanus toxin important for vaccines?
It is antigenically uniform!
Which type of tetanus is typical of animals not highly susceptible?
Acending tetanus (dogs and cats)
Follow retrograde, intra-axonal transport of toxin
Which type of tetanus is typical of highly susceptible species?
Descending tetanus (horses and humans)
Effective toxin quantities are disseminated via vascular channels to nerve ending areas remote from the toxigenic site
Are survivors of tetanus susceptible to re-infection?
Yes. Not enough toxin present to induce a strong immune-response (neutralizing antibodies)
What does the therapy for tetanus aim at?
Neutralization of circulating toxin
(flushing of hydrogen peroxide to create aerobic conditions)
Life support and symptomatic relief