Non-Invasive Clostridia - Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Non-Invasive Clostridia - Exam 2 Deck (27):
1

Which neurotransmitter does botulinum toxin block the release of?

Acetylcholine 

2

Which neurotransmitter does tetanus toxin block the release of?

GABA and glycine

3

What is the condition of neuroparalytic intoxication characterized by flaccid paralysis?

Botulism

4

Which species is C. botulinum mainly seen in?

Ruminants, horses, mink, and waterfowl

5

How does the botulinum neurotoxin work on nerve cells?

Zinc endopeptidases bind to cholinergic nerve cells, decreases the release of Ach

6

How is C. botulinum transmitted?

When animals die, the spores (common in gut and tissues) germinate and generate toxin, which may be ingested by carrion eaters or contaminated environment

7

What are the clincal signs of botulism?

Muscular incoordination leading to:

Recumbency

Extrusion of the tongue

Disturbances in food prehension, chewing, and swallowing

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8

Which types of C. botulinum are found in all soils?

Types A and B

9

Which types of C. botulinum predominate in all animals?

Types C and D

10

What is the source of outbreak of C. botulinum?

Deat cat or rodents in feed

Also chicken manure when used as a cattle feed supplement

11

Which types of C. botulinum are linked to aquatic sediments?

C, D, E, and F

12

Which type of botulinum is associated with tainted meat (milk rances) and contaminated fish food (fish hatcheries)?

Type E

13

What is an initial clinical sign of botulism?

Limberneck

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14

Which type of botulinum is linked to phosphorous diet defiencies?

Type D

15

What does the diagnosis of botulism require?

Demonstration of the toxin in the plasma or tissue before death or from a fresh carcass

16

What is the only accepted method of confirmation for diagnosis of botulism?

Toxin is extracted from material and injected into guinea pigs or mice

17

What is the cause of death due to botulism?

Respiratory failure

18

What is the condition of neuroparalytic intoxication charactered by tonic-clonic convulsions?

Tetanus

19

How do animals get tetanus?

Results from inoculation of a traumatic wound with spores

20

Who is susceptible to tetanus?

ALL MAMMALS! but to varying degrees

Horses and humans, ruminants and swine more susceptible than carnivores

Poultry highly resistant

Mortality rate is high

21

How does tetanospasmin (tetanus toxin) work on neurons?

Zinc endopeptisdase binds to neurons, which release GABA and glycine, the major inhibitory neurotransmitters

22

What does tetanus use to hydrolyze docking protein?

Synaptobrevin (VAMP)

23

Why is the tetanus toxin important for vaccines?

It is antigenically uniform!

24

Which type of tetanus is typical of animals not highly susceptible?

Acending tetanus (dogs and cats)

Follow retrograde, intra-axonal transport of toxin

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25

Which type of tetanus is typical of highly susceptible species?

Descending tetanus (horses and humans)

Effective toxin quantities are disseminated via vascular channels to nerve ending areas remote from the toxigenic site

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26

Are survivors of tetanus susceptible to re-infection?

Yes. Not enough toxin present to induce a strong immune-response (neutralizing antibodies)

27

What does the therapy for tetanus aim at?

Neutralization of circulating toxin

(flushing of hydrogen peroxide to create aerobic conditions)

Life support and symptomatic relief