Salmonella is a gram ______ bacteria.
True/False. Salmonella is a facultative intracellular pathogen.
What virulence mechanism enables gram-negative pathogens to inject bacterial effector proteins directly inot the host cell cytoplasm, bypassing the extracellular environment?
Type III secretion system (T3SSs)
What is pyroptosis?
Programmed cell death occuring during Salmonella infection associated with response to pahtogen and inflammation
What does it mean to be a convalescent carrier of Salmonella?
All serotypes in all hosts
What does it mean to be a chronic carrier of Salmonella?
Host adapted serotypes in reservoir host
What is the pathology of Salmonella that leds to diarrhea?
Fibrinosupperative, necrotizing and hemorrhagic inflammation of the distal small and large intestine (and other organs)
What kind of serotyping would you perform to diagnose Salmonella and what antigens would you be looking for?
O and H antigens
How many species of Salmonella are there?
S. enterica and S. bongori
Many different types of subspecies
Which serotype of S. enterica ssp. enterica is present in cattle?
S. enterica ssp. enterica serotype Dublin
Which serotype of S. enterica ssp. enterica is present in swine?
S. enterica ssp. enterica serotype Choleraesuis
Which serotypes of S. enterica ssp. enterica is present in poultry?
S. enterica ssp. enterica serotype Gallinarum
S. enterica ssp. enterica serotype Pullorum
What are the virulence factors of Salmonella?
LPS, Flagella, Fimbria
Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI 1 and 2)
What is the main mode of transmission for Salmonella?
What species is Salmonella a significant disease that causes explosive diarrhea and sometimes death?
Increased temp, depression, off feed, diarrhea (explosive), decreased milk, increased salivation, pneumonia, polyarthritis, and death
What cells does Salmonella survive in when in the blood?
What is the pathology of Salmonella that leads to septicemia?
Vasculitis, thromboembolism, hemorrhages, infarcts
Liver, spleen, lungs
Which serotypes of S. enterica ssp. enterica is present in sheep/goats?
S. enterica ssp. enterica serotype Abortus-ovis
Which species is Salmonella a significant disease that cause acut fulminating septicemia and chronic debilating enteritis?
Stressed animals, feeder pigs, viral co-infections
May present similary to classical swine fever
Which species is Salmonella the most common cause of infectious diarrhea?
Which serotypes of S. enterica ssp. enterica are most common in clinical diseases of horses?
S. enterica ssp. enterica serotype Typhimurium
S. enterica ssp. enterica serotype Agona
True/False. Stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Salmonella in horses.
Which serotypes of S. enterica ssp. enterica are most common in fecal shedding of horses?
S. enterica ssp. enterica serotype Muenchen
S. enterica ssp. enterica serotype Newport
True/False. Antimicrobial treatment is effective for Salmonella infection.
This is controversial. It does not appear to alter the course of colitis or decrease shedding of salmonella
Resistance patterns vary among Salmonella isolates and can change over the course of an outbreak
Which antibiotic given in a low-dose will bind to circulating endotoxin and may be used to treat endotoxemia in horses?
Which serotype of Salmonella enterica causes bacillary white diarrhea in chicks?
Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serotype Pullorum
AKA "Pullorum disease"
Which serotype of Salmonella enterica causes fowl typhoid?
Salmonella enterica spp enterica serotype Gallinarum
How is the Salmonella that infects poultry transmitted?
through the ovaries to the chicks or egg or whatever
What is a characteristic of Salmonella infection in adult birds?
Regressing ovarian follicles with caseous contents
Which serotype of Salmonella that causes infections in birds has a higher morality for older birds?
How would you expect the spleen and liver to look in a bird infected with Fowl typhoid?
Mottled and brittle spleen
Bronzed and enlarged liver
What serotype of Salmonella is one of the most common serotypes reported worldwide and is in eggs?
Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serotype Enteritidis
Which subspecies of Salmonella causes Avain Arizonosis? What animals species are they mainly isolated from?
S. enterica subsp. arizonae and diarizoniae
Mainly isolated from reptiles, birds, turkeys
What does S. enterica subsp. arizonae cause in humans?
case report - the price of exotic pets