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Flashcards in Bacillis - Exam 2 Deck (30):
1

Which species of Bacillus is the only consistent pathogen of vertebrates?

B. anthracis

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2

Bacillis is catalase _________, and is important in distinguishing it from which other bacteria?

Catalase positive

Catalase production important to distinguish from Clostridia

3

When does Bacillus form spores?

When subjected to stress, for protection

4

True/False. A spore always needs to form a capsule.

False! It does not!

5

What are the plasmids that are important virulence factors and regulatory genes?

pX01 and pX02

6

What does the plasmid pX01 contain?

AtxA (Anthrax toxin activator)

AcpA (Anthrax capsule activator)

Gene for edema and lethal toxin

7

What does the plasmid pX02 contain?

Gene for encoding the capsule

8

Which form of Bacillis produces a capsule?

Vegetative form

9

What is the capsule of Bacillis composed of?

D-glutamyl polypeptide

10

Which type of Bacillis isolates are used for vaccines?

Non-encapsulated isolates because they are avirulent

11

What is lethal toxin composed of?

Protective antigen (responsible for binding target cells)

and

Lethal factor (responsible for toxicity)

At low doses causes a cytokine "storm" leading to multi-organ disfunction

At higher concentrations produces apoptosis of macrophages

 

12

What is edema toxin composed of?

Protective antigen (responsible for binding to target cells)

and

Edema factor (causes electrolyte and fluid loss in affected cells)

13

What are the two effects of the edema factor?

EF will either kill macrophages or cause edema in tissue

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14

Calcium in combination with __________, allows the spore to survive decades in a dry environment. 

Dipicolinic acid

15

Which species is almost totally resistant to Bacillis anthracis?

Birds

16

What is the main reservoir for Bacillis anthracis?

Soil and water 

(herbivores are most susceptible)

17

How is Bacillis transmitted and what is the infectious unit?

Infections takes place by:

1. Ingestion of contaminated feed or water

2. Via wound infection and arthropod bits

 

Infectious unit is the endospore

18

What are the most susceptible species to Bacillis anthracis and what does it cause?

RUMINANTS! (cattle and sheep)

SEPTICEMIA! (and bleeding at body orifices)

19

True/False. Rigor mortis is often absent with infection of Bacillis?

True

20

What does Bacillis anthracis cause in horses?

Colic and diarrhea

Edema mainly in point of infection

Septicemia 

21

What tissue is typically infected with Bacillis in swine?

Pharyngeal tissue

22

What are the three types of anthrax in humans?

Cutaneous anthrax

GI anthrax

Pulmonary or inhalation anthrax

23

True/False. Bacillis anthracis can contaminate the soil after the animal it was infecting has died.

True

24

True/False. You should perform a field necropsy on animals suspected of dying from Bacillis anthracis?

FALSE! NO FIELD NECROPSY!!!!!!!!!

25

What stain is used to ID Bacillis anthracis?

McFadyean's methylene blue

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26

What is the main treatment for Bacillis anthracis?

Antimicrobial treatment with antiserum

27

Which type of Bacillis is associated with abortion and bovine mastitis?

Bacillis cereus

28

Which type of Bacillis is associated with food spoilage?

B. licheniformis

29

True/False. Bacillis is a reportable disease.

TRUE

30

True/False. Bacillis is an obligate anaerobe.

FALSE. 

Bacillis is a facultative anaerobe