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Flashcards in Invasive Clostridium Deck (100):
1

Clostridum are gram _____ and ____ forming 

positive and spore forming 

2

Clostrium form _____ rods 

anaerobic - they do not need oxygen to grow 

3

________ imparts resistance to the drying heat, irradiation and disinfectants

endospore

4

Clostridium can survive for _____ in the environment due to the endospore

years 

5

Clostridium is catalase _____, oxidase ______ and _______ ferments

negative, negative, they DO ferment 

6

Clostrial cultures emit _____

putrid odor 

7

CLostrium are motile via _____ flagella 

peritrichous 

(C. perferingens is non motile)

8

True/False: All clostridium produce endopores 

False: Most Clostridium do not produce endospores 

9

What Clostridium species is most common in humans and animals?

Clostridium perfringens 

10

Clostridium is associated with enterotoxemias in ruminants, diarrhea, and wound infections that can lead to _____

gas gangrene (type A toxin)

11

Clostridium perfringens happens on farms with high diets of ______

carbohydrates 

12

What are the virulence factors of Clostridium Perfringens?

adhesiosn- helps to bind to epithelial cells

capsule

Global regulatory systems - regulate toxin expression 

13

Normally clostridium perfringens are present in the _____ or in the ______ of animals

intestinal tract or in the muscle 

Bacteria moves into the muscle if there is muscle damage

14

When Clostridium Perfringens are in an environment that is not good for them they turn the regulatory system ____, but when the bacteria are in favorable conditions, the VirR and VirS start regulation the toxin production 

off

15

What would you see if you took a fine needle aspirate of an abscess with Clostridium?

Neutrophils that have been damaged or are in the process of dying. Along with Gram positive straight rods 

 

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16

_____ toxin is produced by all Clostridum perfringens and causes hemolysis, necrosis and lethality

alpha 

17

_____ toxin is a pore forming toxin that is favored by protease inhibitors in colostrum 

beta 

18

______ toxin is activated by trypsin and is necrotizing and lethal to epithelial cells 

Epsilon 

19

Epsilon toxin concentrates in the brain and kidney and also damages the ______

microvasculature 

20

_____ toxin affects the cellular cytoskeleton and kills the affected cell 

Iota 

21

________ (theta toxin) produces holes in the cellular membrane and is important for escape from the phagolysosome 

Perfringolysin O 

22

______ is produced by some C. perfringens during sporulation results in electrolyte abnormalities and diarrhea 

Enterotoxin 

23

What is the reservoir for Clostridium perfringens and how is it transmitted?

Intestinal tract and soil 

it is transmitted via wound infection and ingestion 

24

In the pathology of wound infection, what is the most important toxin and what does it cause?

alpha 

causes cellulitis and gas gangrene (myonecrosis)

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25

What three virulence factors play a big role in Wound infection by clostridium perfringens?

Capsule, alpha toxin, and perfringolysin O 

26

Wound infection pathogenesis leads to the production of _____

gas

27

In animals that produce a lot of toxins and tissue damage it can lead to _____

enterotoxemia 

28

Enterotoxemia ( Type A) leads to an outbreak of gastritis and hemolytic disease in ruminants known as?

Yellow lamb disease 

29

What are the important virulence factors in Enterotoxemia (Type A)?

alpha toxin, perfringlolysin O, and enterotoxins 

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30

What does enterotoxemia (Type A) cause in chickens? 

necrotic enteritis 

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31

Enterotoxemia (Type B) causes _____ in new born lambs

dysentery 

32

In enterotoxemia (Type B), ____ toxin is the principle factor and it is susceptible to ______

Beta, Susceptible to trypsin 

33

Enterotoxemia is largely due to an _____ of established normal intestinal flora 

absence 

34

Enterotoxemia (Type ____) is mainly in neonates. Beta toxin is the principle virulence factor and protease inhibitors in colostrum favors its action 

C

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35

What are the main signs of enterotoxemia and how fatal is it?

depression, anorexia, abdominal pain, diarrhea and it reaches 100% mortality 

36

Enterotoxemia type ____ is in older lambs. It is an overeating disease and causes pulpy kidney 

D

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37

Enterotoxemia type D has a predilection for older animals and involves the ____ toxin 

epsilon 

38

What type of enterotoxemia can cause encephalemalasia in the brain?

Type D 

39

The presence of enterotoxin after the formation of the spore can lead to what?

nonenterotoxemic diarrhea 

40

True/False: Clostridium perfringens is affected by diet and age of the animal 

True:

neonates are more vulnerable and overeating a diet rich in carbohydrates can trigger presense of the disease 

41

What time of the year is Clostridia perfringens more abundant?

When the forage is rich and abundant 

 

*Clostridia that do not produce a spore do not survive well in the environment 

42

What type of immunity is best for Clostridium perfringens?

antibody mediated 

43

In Blood agar, Clostridia perfringens forms a ____ zone of hemolysis 

double 

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44

Clostria Perfringens has a ____CAMP test with S. agalactiae 

positive 

45

A good diagnostic tool to identify Clostridia Perfringens is to test its ____ activity to see if alpha toxin is present 

hemolytic

alpha toxin with lyse all red blood cells

46

_____ fermenation is also a good way to diagnose Clostridia 

Stormy 

*clotting of milk followed by gaseous disruption 

47

True/False: The Naglers agar is a good way to test the Lecithinase activity of Clostridium Perfringens

True

The alpha toxin can degradate the lecithinase in the red blood cells

48

True/False: Enterotoxemia can be treated easily 

False

most cases are too acute for successful treatment 

49

What is the best way to prevent Clostridium Perfringens?

Immunization of the dams 

50

True/False: To prevent Clostridium perfringens  you should ensure against overeating 

True 

51

True/False: Clostridium difficile is non motile 

False- it is motile 

52

What part of the intestine is affected with Clostridium difficile?

Large intestine

*accumulation of mucous and fibrin 

53

True/Fasle: Clostridium difficile is a cause of diarrheal disease in humans

True 

 

*antibiotic associated- when the animal has been taking large amounts of antibiotics 

54

With Clostridium Difficile, most of the lesions and clinical signs are associated with necrosis of the mucosa of the ______

large intestine 

55

True/False: Clostridium difficile has adhesions and a capsule

True

56

What is the most important toxin associated with C. difficile?

Toxin A (Tox A or TcdA)

57

True/False: In Clostridium Difficile, Toxin A is a extotoxin and produces damage to the tight junctions of the cells and results in cell death

False

Toxin A is an enterotoxin 

It does produce damage to the tight junctions and results in cell death 

58

True/False: Clostridium Difficile is part of the normal flora of the intestine and when they find the righ environment to grow is when they start producing the disease. Disease is caused by stress, antibiotics ect. 

True 

59

_____ can be used for the identification of the different types of Clostridium 

flagella 

60

Clostridium difficile causes an intense inflammatory reaction with ______

diarrhea 

61

What does the Large intestine look like with clostridium difficile disease?

LIKE THIS 

hemorrhagic mucosa 

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62

Best way to treat clostridium difficile

orally administered antitoxin 

63

Clostridium novyi is _____ anaerobic rod and produces heat resistant _____

obligate anaerobe 

heat resistant spore 

64

True/ false: C. novyi produces gas gangrene, big head, and black disease 

True 

65

What is the main toxin of C. Novyi

alpha toxin 

*causes cell death 

66

There are two types of C. novyi, type ____ and type ____

A and B

67

____ toxin is produced by type B clostridium novyi. It causes cell death and hemolysis 

Beta toxin 

68

_____ toxin is produced by Type A clostridium Novyi. It binds to the cholesterol and produces lysis of the cell 

Delta toxin 

69

What is the reservoir for the different types of Clostridium novyi?

Type A- soil

Type A and B- normal intestine 

70

How does an animal get clostridium novyi?

ingesting or wound infection 

71

Clostridium Novyi Type A causes what? 

gas gangrene and Bighead of rams

*both are due to wounds 

 

72

True/False: Bighead causes edema and death in 24 days

False: causes death in 1-4 days 

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73

Pathogenesis for Type B clostridium novyi

1. spores are mobilized from intestine and go to the liver kupffer cells

2. liver cells are damaged. Spores germinate

3. Beta toxin production and dissemination 

 

74

What kind of disease does C. novyi Type B cause?

Black disease

*venous congestion causing blackening of the blood 

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75

What organ is affected most with C. novyi?

Liver- necrotic and with gas bubbles

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76

What parasite does Black disease coincide with?

Liver fluke- fasciola hepatica

77

What will be seen if you do a liver smear of Clostridium novyi?

Large gram positive rods with oval shaped spore 

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78

What is the best treatment for C. novyi?

control of liver flukes

bacterin-toxoid combination vaccine 

79

True/False: Clostridium haemolyticum has a capsule?

False- nonecapsulated 

80

What is the main virulence factor of C. hameolyticum?

Pholpholipase C toxin 

81

What disease does Clostridium haemolyticum cause in ruminants?

presense of hemoglobin in the urine called "red water"

82

Is C. heamolyticum, hemolytic? 

VERY- hemolysis if prominant 

83

What Clostridium is the leading cause of wound infections of farm animals?

Clostridium septicum 

84

True/False: Clostridium septicum causes edema and Braxy

True! 

Malignant edema!!! 

Braxy- changes to the mucosa of the stomach due to eating frozen forage 

85

What is the main part of the stomach that is infected by C. septicum and what does it cause there?

Abomasum and causes abomastitis 

86

What is the main virulence factor for C. septicum?

Alpha toxin

*produces the malignant edema 

87

_____ is caused by endothelial damage throughout the body

malignant edema 

*severe fluid and elecrolyte imbalance 

88

True/False: Malignant edem usually results in death 

True- very short period of clinical signs 

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89

True/False: gas gangrene is associated with malignant edema 

True

*you can see the presense of gas of blood staining of affected muscle 

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90

What kind of PCR is done of Clostridium to determine different species?

flagellar 

91

Best way to control C. septicum?

 

vaccination

clean wounds well 

92

Clostridium chauvoei causes a necrotizing myositis in cattle called _____

Black leg 

93

How do animals get C. chauvoei?

endogenous and soil acquired infection 

94

True/False: Clostridium chauvoei causes muscle to appear black because it causes high necrosis of the tissue and hemolysis 

True 

95

What is the main virulence factor of C. chauvoei?

Alpha toxin 

96

What disease causes high fever, anorexia, lameness, superficial lesions, and death with C. Chauvoei?

Black leg 

*necrosis of the fibers of the muscles 

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97

What causes the lesions in the muscle of black leg?

bacterial growth and toxin production 

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98

Pathogenesis of Black leg 

1. Bacteria enters the GI tract

2. Spores disseminate to the muscle 

3. injury in the muscle leads to spore producing toxins 

4. muscle necrosis, edema and death 

 

(picture: muscle is black from necrosis) 

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99

What is the main line of defense to C. chauvoei?

circulation antibodies 

100

Best way to control C. chauvei?

vaccination of cattle 

vaccination of pregnant ewes 

change pasture