Clostridum are gram _____ and ____ forming
positive and spore forming
Clostrium form _____ rods
anaerobic - they do not need oxygen to grow
________ imparts resistance to the drying heat, irradiation and disinfectants
Clostridium can survive for _____ in the environment due to the endospore
Clostridium is catalase _____, oxidase ______ and _______ ferments
negative, negative, they DO ferment
Clostrial cultures emit _____
CLostrium are motile via _____ flagella
(C. perferingens is non motile)
True/False: All clostridium produce endopores
False: Most Clostridium do not produce endospores
What Clostridium species is most common in humans and animals?
Clostridium is associated with enterotoxemias in ruminants, diarrhea, and wound infections that can lead to _____
gas gangrene (type A toxin)
Clostridium perfringens happens on farms with high diets of ______
What are the virulence factors of Clostridium Perfringens?
adhesiosn- helps to bind to epithelial cells
Global regulatory systems - regulate toxin expression
Normally clostridium perfringens are present in the _____ or in the ______ of animals
intestinal tract or in the muscle
Bacteria moves into the muscle if there is muscle damage
When Clostridium Perfringens are in an environment that is not good for them they turn the regulatory system ____, but when the bacteria are in favorable conditions, the VirR and VirS start regulation the toxin production
What would you see if you took a fine needle aspirate of an abscess with Clostridium?
Neutrophils that have been damaged or are in the process of dying. Along with Gram positive straight rods
_____ toxin is produced by all Clostridum perfringens and causes hemolysis, necrosis and lethality
_____ toxin is a pore forming toxin that is favored by protease inhibitors in colostrum
______ toxin is activated by trypsin and is necrotizing and lethal to epithelial cells
Epsilon toxin concentrates in the brain and kidney and also damages the ______
_____ toxin affects the cellular cytoskeleton and kills the affected cell
________ (theta toxin) produces holes in the cellular membrane and is important for escape from the phagolysosome
______ is produced by some C. perfringens during sporulation results in electrolyte abnormalities and diarrhea
What is the reservoir for Clostridium perfringens and how is it transmitted?
Intestinal tract and soil
it is transmitted via wound infection and ingestion
In the pathology of wound infection, what is the most important toxin and what does it cause?
causes cellulitis and gas gangrene (myonecrosis)
What three virulence factors play a big role in Wound infection by clostridium perfringens?
Capsule, alpha toxin, and perfringolysin O
Wound infection pathogenesis leads to the production of _____
In animals that produce a lot of toxins and tissue damage it can lead to _____
Enterotoxemia ( Type A) leads to an outbreak of gastritis and hemolytic disease in ruminants known as?
Yellow lamb disease
What are the important virulence factors in Enterotoxemia (Type A)?
alpha toxin, perfringlolysin O, and enterotoxins
What does enterotoxemia (Type A) cause in chickens?
Enterotoxemia (Type B) causes _____ in new born lambs
In enterotoxemia (Type B), ____ toxin is the principle factor and it is susceptible to ______
Beta, Susceptible to trypsin
Enterotoxemia is largely due to an _____ of established normal intestinal flora
Enterotoxemia (Type ____) is mainly in neonates. Beta toxin is the principle virulence factor and protease inhibitors in colostrum favors its action
What are the main signs of enterotoxemia and how fatal is it?
depression, anorexia, abdominal pain, diarrhea and it reaches 100% mortality
Enterotoxemia type ____ is in older lambs. It is an overeating disease and causes pulpy kidney
Enterotoxemia type D has a predilection for older animals and involves the ____ toxin
What type of enterotoxemia can cause encephalemalasia in the brain?
The presence of enterotoxin after the formation of the spore can lead to what?
True/False: Clostridium perfringens is affected by diet and age of the animal
neonates are more vulnerable and overeating a diet rich in carbohydrates can trigger presense of the disease
What time of the year is Clostridia perfringens more abundant?
When the forage is rich and abundant
*Clostridia that do not produce a spore do not survive well in the environment
What type of immunity is best for Clostridium perfringens?
In Blood agar, Clostridia perfringens forms a ____ zone of hemolysis
Clostria Perfringens has a ____CAMP test with S. agalactiae
A good diagnostic tool to identify Clostridia Perfringens is to test its ____ activity to see if alpha toxin is present
alpha toxin with lyse all red blood cells
_____ fermenation is also a good way to diagnose Clostridia
*clotting of milk followed by gaseous disruption
True/False: The Naglers agar is a good way to test the Lecithinase activity of Clostridium Perfringens
The alpha toxin can degradate the lecithinase in the red blood cells
True/False: Enterotoxemia can be treated easily
most cases are too acute for successful treatment
What is the best way to prevent Clostridium Perfringens?
Immunization of the dams
True/False: To prevent Clostridium perfringens you should ensure against overeating
True/False: Clostridium difficile is non motile
False- it is motile
What part of the intestine is affected with Clostridium difficile?
*accumulation of mucous and fibrin
True/Fasle: Clostridium difficile is a cause of diarrheal disease in humans
*antibiotic associated- when the animal has been taking large amounts of antibiotics
With Clostridium Difficile, most of the lesions and clinical signs are associated with necrosis of the mucosa of the ______
True/False: Clostridium difficile has adhesions and a capsule
What is the most important toxin associated with C. difficile?
Toxin A (Tox A or TcdA)
True/False: In Clostridium Difficile, Toxin A is a extotoxin and produces damage to the tight junctions of the cells and results in cell death
Toxin A is an enterotoxin
It does produce damage to the tight junctions and results in cell death
True/False: Clostridium Difficile is part of the normal flora of the intestine and when they find the righ environment to grow is when they start producing the disease. Disease is caused by stress, antibiotics ect.
_____ can be used for the identification of the different types of Clostridium
Clostridium difficile causes an intense inflammatory reaction with ______
What does the Large intestine look like with clostridium difficile disease?
Best way to treat clostridium difficile
orally administered antitoxin
Clostridium novyi is _____ anaerobic rod and produces heat resistant _____
heat resistant spore
True/ false: C. novyi produces gas gangrene, big head, and black disease
What is the main toxin of C. Novyi
*causes cell death
There are two types of C. novyi, type ____ and type ____
A and B
____ toxin is produced by type B clostridium novyi. It causes cell death and hemolysis
_____ toxin is produced by Type A clostridium Novyi. It binds to the cholesterol and produces lysis of the cell
What is the reservoir for the different types of Clostridium novyi?
Type A- soil
Type A and B- normal intestine
How does an animal get clostridium novyi?
ingesting or wound infection
Clostridium Novyi Type A causes what?
gas gangrene and Bighead of rams
*both are due to wounds
True/False: Bighead causes edema and death in 24 days
False: causes death in 1-4 days
Pathogenesis for Type B clostridium novyi
1. spores are mobilized from intestine and go to the liver kupffer cells
2. liver cells are damaged. Spores germinate
3. Beta toxin production and dissemination
What kind of disease does C. novyi Type B cause?
*venous congestion causing blackening of the blood
What organ is affected most with C. novyi?
Liver- necrotic and with gas bubbles
What parasite does Black disease coincide with?
Liver fluke- fasciola hepatica
What will be seen if you do a liver smear of Clostridium novyi?
Large gram positive rods with oval shaped spore
What is the best treatment for C. novyi?
control of liver flukes
bacterin-toxoid combination vaccine
True/False: Clostridium haemolyticum has a capsule?
What is the main virulence factor of C. hameolyticum?
Pholpholipase C toxin
What disease does Clostridium haemolyticum cause in ruminants?
presense of hemoglobin in the urine called "red water"
Is C. heamolyticum, hemolytic?
VERY- hemolysis if prominant
What Clostridium is the leading cause of wound infections of farm animals?
True/False: Clostridium septicum causes edema and Braxy
Braxy- changes to the mucosa of the stomach due to eating frozen forage
What is the main part of the stomach that is infected by C. septicum and what does it cause there?
Abomasum and causes abomastitis
What is the main virulence factor for C. septicum?
*produces the malignant edema
_____ is caused by endothelial damage throughout the body
*severe fluid and elecrolyte imbalance
True/False: Malignant edem usually results in death
True- very short period of clinical signs
True/False: gas gangrene is associated with malignant edema
*you can see the presense of gas of blood staining of affected muscle
What kind of PCR is done of Clostridium to determine different species?
Best way to control C. septicum?
clean wounds well
Clostridium chauvoei causes a necrotizing myositis in cattle called _____
How do animals get C. chauvoei?
endogenous and soil acquired infection
True/False: Clostridium chauvoei causes muscle to appear black because it causes high necrosis of the tissue and hemolysis
What is the main virulence factor of C. chauvoei?
What disease causes high fever, anorexia, lameness, superficial lesions, and death with C. Chauvoei?
*necrosis of the fibers of the muscles
What causes the lesions in the muscle of black leg?
bacterial growth and toxin production
Pathogenesis of Black leg
1. Bacteria enters the GI tract
2. Spores disseminate to the muscle
3. injury in the muscle leads to spore producing toxins
4. muscle necrosis, edema and death
(picture: muscle is black from necrosis)
What is the main line of defense to C. chauvoei?
Best way to control C. chauvei?
vaccination of cattle
vaccination of pregnant ewes