Non invasive Clostridium Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Non invasive Clostridium Deck (39):
1

True/False: Non invasive clostridia cause lesions in the GI tract

False 

2

Non invasive clostridia produce disease strictly through _____

neurotoxins 

3

Botulinum toxin and tetanus block _____ release 

neurotranmitter 

botulism blocks Ach

Tetanus blocks GABA

4

Botulism is characterized by _____ paralysis 

flacid 

5

True/ False: Botulism is seen mainly in rumiants, horses, mink, fowl and swine

False- swine are rarely affected 

6

Botulinum neurotoxins are _____ endopeptidases that bind to cholinergic nerve cells and decrease the release of acetylcholine 

zinc 

7

While the spore is normally very heat resistant, what can be added to food to suppress the germination of the spore in foods?

salt, nitrates 

8

What are the reservoirs of non invasive clostridium?

soil and aquatic sediments 

9

What is the most common route of transmission of botulism?

toxin ingestion

 

*toxin is present when food is contaminated with cadavers of animals 

10

Pathogenesis of botulism

1. toxin is ingested and circulates in blood stream

2. goes to neuromuscular junction and inhibits release of acetylcholine 

3. muscle is not able to contract 

4. animal cannot breathe - death due to respiratory failure 

11

Clinical signs of botulism include:

musclular incoordination - recumbancy 

extrusion of tongue

*no change in consciousness 

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12

What types of botulism are predominant in animals?

Types C and D 

13

True/False: dead cat or rodent in feed can be source of outbreak of botulism

True 

14

What is the initial clinical sign of botulism in birds?

limberneck 

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15

Type ____ bolulinum is linked to phosphorous diet deficeincies 

D

16

Type ____ Botulinum is caused in cattle and mules and causes shaker foal syndrome

B

17

infant botulinum leads to what syndrome 

Floppy baby syndrome 

18

What is the only accepted method of confirmation of botulsim?

Toxin is extracted from material and injected into guinea pig or mice 

19

True/False: Botulin can be grown on egg yolk and blood agar

True

 

20

What is the best treatment of Botulism 

evacuate the stomach- remove stomach contents

antitoxin treatment 

 

21

What is the main vaccine for Botulism?

toxoids 

22

_____ is a neuroparalytic that is characterized by tonic-clonic convulsions

tetanus 

23

How do animals get tetanus?

inoculation of a traumatic wound with spores 

24

True/False: All mammals are susceptible to tetanus but horses are highly resistant 

False: Poultry is highly resistant 

25

tetanus toxin is a ____ endopeptidase that binds to the neurons and inhibits the GABA 

zinc 

26

Tetanus is characterized by muscle that is constantly _____

contracted 

27

Tetanus is antigenically ____ meaning that no mater what toxin you use for the vaccine there will be cross immunity 

uniform 

28

Tetanus leads to ____paralysis 

spastic 

29

ascending tetanus is typical of animals that  _____ highly susceptible

ARE NOT

*ascending tetanus does not cause complete spastic paralysis, only localized to certain areas 

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30

descending tetanus is typical in ______ species 

highly suscpetible

*in descending tetanus the toxin enters the CNS and produces generalized tetanus

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31

True/False: mortality is 5% for tetanus

False: at least 50% mortality and highest in young animals 

32

Clinical signs for tetantus include:

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stiffness, muscle tremor, grinding of teeth, lockjaw, stiffness of tail ect. 

33

True/ False: animals with tetanus are not conscious

False: consciousness persists 

34

What is the main cause of death in tetanus?

respiratory arrest 

35

True/False: Carnivores are not as susceptible as horses or ruminants

True

normally only ascending tetanus 

36

What is the best way to prevent tetanus?

toxoid vaccine 

37

True/False: Survivors are susceptible to reinfection with tetanus 

true 

38

What appearance does Tetanus have under a microscope?

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drumstick type bacteria 

39

What is the best treatment for tetanus?

neutralization of the ciruclation toxin 

wound care