True/False: Non invasive clostridia cause lesions in the GI tract
Non invasive clostridia produce disease strictly through _____
Botulinum toxin and tetanus block _____ release
botulism blocks Ach
Tetanus blocks GABA
Botulism is characterized by _____ paralysis
True/ False: Botulism is seen mainly in rumiants, horses, mink, fowl and swine
False- swine are rarely affected
Botulinum neurotoxins are _____ endopeptidases that bind to cholinergic nerve cells and decrease the release of acetylcholine
While the spore is normally very heat resistant, what can be added to food to suppress the germination of the spore in foods?
What are the reservoirs of non invasive clostridium?
soil and aquatic sediments
What is the most common route of transmission of botulism?
*toxin is present when food is contaminated with cadavers of animals
Pathogenesis of botulism
1. toxin is ingested and circulates in blood stream
2. goes to neuromuscular junction and inhibits release of acetylcholine
3. muscle is not able to contract
4. animal cannot breathe - death due to respiratory failure
Clinical signs of botulism include:
musclular incoordination - recumbancy
extrusion of tongue
*no change in consciousness
What types of botulism are predominant in animals?
Types C and D
True/False: dead cat or rodent in feed can be source of outbreak of botulism
What is the initial clinical sign of botulism in birds?
Type ____ bolulinum is linked to phosphorous diet deficeincies
Type ____ Botulinum is caused in cattle and mules and causes shaker foal syndrome
infant botulinum leads to what syndrome
Floppy baby syndrome
What is the only accepted method of confirmation of botulsim?
Toxin is extracted from material and injected into guinea pig or mice
True/False: Botulin can be grown on egg yolk and blood agar
What is the best treatment of Botulism
evacuate the stomach- remove stomach contents
What is the main vaccine for Botulism?
_____ is a neuroparalytic that is characterized by tonic-clonic convulsions
How do animals get tetanus?
inoculation of a traumatic wound with spores
True/False: All mammals are susceptible to tetanus but horses are highly resistant
False: Poultry is highly resistant
tetanus toxin is a ____ endopeptidase that binds to the neurons and inhibits the GABA
Tetanus is characterized by muscle that is constantly _____
Tetanus is antigenically ____ meaning that no mater what toxin you use for the vaccine there will be cross immunity
Tetanus leads to ____paralysis
ascending tetanus is typical of animals that _____ highly susceptible
*ascending tetanus does not cause complete spastic paralysis, only localized to certain areas
descending tetanus is typical in ______ species
*in descending tetanus the toxin enters the CNS and produces generalized tetanus
True/False: mortality is 5% for tetanus
False: at least 50% mortality and highest in young animals
Clinical signs for tetantus include:
stiffness, muscle tremor, grinding of teeth, lockjaw, stiffness of tail ect.
True/ False: animals with tetanus are not conscious
False: consciousness persists
What is the main cause of death in tetanus?
True/False: Carnivores are not as susceptible as horses or ruminants
normally only ascending tetanus
What is the best way to prevent tetanus?
True/False: Survivors are susceptible to reinfection with tetanus
What appearance does Tetanus have under a microscope?
drumstick type bacteria
What is the best treatment for tetanus?
neutralization of the ciruclation toxin