Flashcards in Joint Injuries Deck (19)
What are the types of joint injury?
*fractures are said to be open or closed depending on whether the skin is pierced.
What must you always check before intervention with a joint injury?
Check for neurovascular damage.
What are some common examples of joint injury and neurovascular damage?
Axillary nerve and shoulder dislocation.
Median nerve and colles fracture.
What are some examples of how you would see joint injuries.
Two x rays (anterior to posterior view)
Arthrography (uses coloured dye)
What is an MRI scan good for looking at?
What is a CT scan good for looking at?
What is aspiration of a joint?
Extracting fluid from the joint. The colour of the fluid can be clinically useful.
What is the general course of treatment for a joint injury?
Open injury needs cleaning, irrigation and reduction.
What would you do if a patient had an open joint injury?
Do a wash out, IV antibiotics, check the tetanus status and cover the wound.
What dressing would you never use to cover cartilage?
A Betadine dressing.
What is a sprain?
Damage to a ligament. Forces stress the ligaments eg lengthen.
Can be complete or partial.
Damaged fibres with continuity intact.
Common sites are the ankle and knee.
How would you treat a sprain?
Rest it, put ice on it, compress it and elevate it - RICE
*for more severe injuries can have anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
What is dislocation?
Complete loss of continuity of the articulating surface of the joint.
Eg finger, shoulder.
What is subluxation?
Partial loss of continuity of the articulating surfaces of the joint.
Shows that the capsule isn't very good.
What is a fracture?
A break in the continuity of the bone.
What causes fractures.
Stress, trauma, a deficiency eg osteoporosis or pathological eg tumour or infection.
What are the treatments of joint injuries?
Conservative and support
Manipulation and cast
Manipulation and wires
Open reduction, internal fixation - screws, plates and wires
External fixation - Ilizarov
Arthroplast - hemi or total (replace)
Excision - remove
Osteotomy - breaking and straightening
Amputation - done only if no blood supply or infection
Arthrodesis - stiffening
How cold you treat a hip fracture?
With a hip replacement - ball or screws
In severe cases can remove the head of the femur.