Vertebral column Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vertebral column Deck (58):
1

What are the main functions of the vertebral column?

Protection
Support
Axis
Movement

2

What does each vertebrae have?

A vertebral body and a vertebral arch

3

What is the vertebral body?

The anterior section of the vertebrae. It is weight bearing.

4

What happens to the vertebrae as you go down the vertebral column?

They increase in size

5

What lines the vertebral body?

Hyaline cartilage

6

What can the vertebral body be used to diagnose?

Osteoporosis

7

What separates each vertebral body?

A fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc

8

What is the function of the intervertebral discs?

Flexibility of the spine
Shock absorber

9

What are the two regions of the vertebral disc?

Nucleus pulposus
Annulus fibrosus

10

What is the structure of the Annulus fibrosus?

Tough and collagenous. It surrounds the Nucleus pulposus

11

What is the structure of the Nuclus pulpsus?

Jelly like and posterior

12

What is a slipped disc?

Herniation of the intervetebral disc

13

What happens in herniation of the intervertebral disc?

The nucleus pulposus ruptures and breaks through the outer layer.

14

In what direction does herniation of a intervertebral disc occur?

Posterior and lateral direction

15

Why is there pain and symptoms when an intervertebral disc herniates?

Because of the direction it herniates in, there is pressure put on the spinal cord.

16

Where is the vertebral arch?

Lateral and posterior

17

What is the hole that a vertebral arch forms called?

Vertebral foramen

18

How is the vertebral canal formed?

All the vertebral foramen line up

19

What is in the vertebral canal?

The spinal cord

20

Where are Pedicles?

On the left and right of the vertebral arches

21

What are Lamina?

The bone between the transverse and spinal processes

22

Where are the Transverse processes?

Lateral and posterior to the Pedicles

23

Where are the Articular processes?

They are superior and inferior at the junctions of the Lamina and Pedicles

24

What are the Spinous processes?

A posterior and inferior projection of bone

25

How many Cervical vertebrae are there?

Seven

26

What are the 3 main distinguishing features of a Cervical vertebrae?

Bifid spinous process
Foramen transversarium
Vertebral foramen is trangular

27

What is C1 called?

The Atlas

28

What is C2 called?

The Axis

29

What is special about C7's spinous process?

It is longer and doesn't bifurcate

30

How many thoracic vertebrae are there?

Twelve

31

What is the main function of the thoracic vertebrae?

To articulate with the ribs

32

What does each thoracic vertebrae have?

2 Demi facets on each side of the ventral body

33

What do Demi facets do?

Articulate with the respective rib and the one inferior to it

34

Where is the Costal facet?

On the transverse process of the thoracic vertebrae

35

What is the function of the Costal facet?

Articulation with its respective rib.

36

Where is the spinous process?

Inferior and anterior

37

What is the function of the spinous process?

Extra protection to the spinal cord.

38

What shape is the Thoracic vertebral foramen?

Circular

39

How many Lumbar vertebrae are there?

Five

40

What is the largest of all the vertebrae?

The lumbar vertebrae

41

What shape are the ventral bodies of the Lumbar vertebrae?

Kidney shaped and very large

42

What is the shape of the Lumbar vertebral foramen?

Triangular

43

What is the Sacrum?

Five fused vertebrae

44

What does the Coccyx lack?

Vertebral arches

45

What type of joint is the vertebral body joint?

Cartilaginous - Designed for weight bearing

46

What ligaments strengthen the vertebral body joints?

Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments

47

What does the anterior longitudinal ligament prevent?

It is thick and prevents hyperextentsion of the vertebral column

48

What does the posterior longitudinal ligament prevent?

Weaker than anterior, but prevents hyperflexion

49

What are the joints between the articular facets called?

Facet joints

50

What do facet joints allow?

Gliding of the vertebrae over one another

51

What ligaments strengthen the facet joints?

Ligamentum flava
Infraspinous and Supraspinous
Intertransverse ligaments

52

What is Kyphosis?

Excessive thoracic curvature

53

What does Kyphosis look like?

A hunchback deformity

54

What is Lordosis?

Excessive Lumbar curvature

55

What does Lordosis look like?

A swayback deformity

56

What is Scoliosis?

A lateral curvature of the spine, unknown causes

57

What is Cervical Spondylosis?

A decrease in the size of the intervertebral foramina, due to degeneration of the joints of the spine.

58

What are the symptoms of cervical spondylosis?

There is pain due to pressure on the nerves