Flashcards in Vertebral column Deck (58)
What are the main functions of the vertebral column?
What does each vertebrae have?
A vertebral body and a vertebral arch
What is the vertebral body?
The anterior section of the vertebrae. It is weight bearing.
What happens to the vertebrae as you go down the vertebral column?
They increase in size
What lines the vertebral body?
What can the vertebral body be used to diagnose?
What separates each vertebral body?
A fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc
What is the function of the intervertebral discs?
Flexibility of the spine
What are the two regions of the vertebral disc?
What is the structure of the Annulus fibrosus?
Tough and collagenous. It surrounds the Nucleus pulposus
What is the structure of the Nuclus pulpsus?
Jelly like and posterior
What is a slipped disc?
Herniation of the intervetebral disc
What happens in herniation of the intervertebral disc?
The nucleus pulposus ruptures and breaks through the outer layer.
In what direction does herniation of a intervertebral disc occur?
Posterior and lateral direction
Why is there pain and symptoms when an intervertebral disc herniates?
Because of the direction it herniates in, there is pressure put on the spinal cord.
Where is the vertebral arch?
Lateral and posterior
What is the hole that a vertebral arch forms called?
How is the vertebral canal formed?
All the vertebral foramen line up
What is in the vertebral canal?
The spinal cord
Where are Pedicles?
On the left and right of the vertebral arches
What are Lamina?
The bone between the transverse and spinal processes
Where are the Transverse processes?
Lateral and posterior to the Pedicles
Where are the Articular processes?
They are superior and inferior at the junctions of the Lamina and Pedicles
What are the Spinous processes?
A posterior and inferior projection of bone
How many Cervical vertebrae are there?
What are the 3 main distinguishing features of a Cervical vertebrae?
Bifid spinous process
Vertebral foramen is trangular
What is C1 called?
What is C2 called?
What is special about C7's spinous process?
It is longer and doesn't bifurcate
How many thoracic vertebrae are there?
What is the main function of the thoracic vertebrae?
To articulate with the ribs
What does each thoracic vertebrae have?
2 Demi facets on each side of the ventral body
What do Demi facets do?
Articulate with the respective rib and the one inferior to it
Where is the Costal facet?
On the transverse process of the thoracic vertebrae
What is the function of the Costal facet?
Articulation with its respective rib.
Where is the spinous process?
Inferior and anterior
What is the function of the spinous process?
Extra protection to the spinal cord.
What shape is the Thoracic vertebral foramen?
How many Lumbar vertebrae are there?
What is the largest of all the vertebrae?
The lumbar vertebrae
What shape are the ventral bodies of the Lumbar vertebrae?
Kidney shaped and very large
What is the shape of the Lumbar vertebral foramen?
What is the Sacrum?
Five fused vertebrae
What does the Coccyx lack?
What type of joint is the vertebral body joint?
Cartilaginous - Designed for weight bearing
What ligaments strengthen the vertebral body joints?
Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
What does the anterior longitudinal ligament prevent?
It is thick and prevents hyperextentsion of the vertebral column
What does the posterior longitudinal ligament prevent?
Weaker than anterior, but prevents hyperflexion
What are the joints between the articular facets called?
What do facet joints allow?
Gliding of the vertebrae over one another
What ligaments strengthen the facet joints?
Infraspinous and Supraspinous
What is Kyphosis?
Excessive thoracic curvature
What does Kyphosis look like?
A hunchback deformity
What is Lordosis?
Excessive Lumbar curvature
What does Lordosis look like?
A swayback deformity
What is Scoliosis?
A lateral curvature of the spine, unknown causes
What is Cervical Spondylosis?
A decrease in the size of the intervertebral foramina, due to degeneration of the joints of the spine.