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Flashcards in Key Info Deck (107):
1

Secondary indicative tenses

Imperfect
Perfect (english past tense)
Pluperfect

2

Cum always takes

The ablative case

3

De always takes

The ablative case

4

As an adverb et means

Even

5

Conditional sentences simple

Indicative in both clauses

6

Conditional sentences future indicative + future indicative

Si laborabit, pecuniam optabit

Future more vivid

If he works (present), he will desire money

7

Conditional sentences future perfect indicative +future indicative

Future exceptionally emphatic

IF he works (will have worked), he will desire money

8

Conditional sentences present subjunctive + present subjunctive

Si laboret, pecuniam optet

Future less vivid

If he should work, he would desire money

9

Conditional sentence imperfect subjunctive + imperfect subjunctive

Present contrary to fact

If he were working , he would be desiring money

10

Conditional sentence pluperfect subjunctive + pluperfect subjunctive

Si laboravisset, pecuniam optavisset

Past contrary to fact

If he had worked, he would have desired money

11

Whats important in terms of tenses in conditional sentences

Protasis action must be completed for that of the apodosis to occur

12

Genitive with verbs of accusing and condemning

Expresses the charge of the penalty

13

Puellam curae culpat

He blames the girl -for her- concern

14

Nautam pecuniae damnavit

He sentenced the sailor -to pay money-

15

A (ab) means "by" when

When representing living beings

"Away from" "by"

16

"Ad" goes with what case

"To" "towards"

Governs the accusative case

17

"Per" goes with what case

Goes with accusative (as it expresses motion towards)

18

When does "dubito" mean hesitate and doubt

Hesitate if with an infinitive

Otherwise doubt

19

Sub + accusative

Movement towards

20

Sub + ablative

Location is involved

21

Ablative without preposition

MEANS or INSTRUMENT by which something is done

22

Ablative with or without "cum"

WAY or MANNER in which something is done

23

Ablative where "cum" is NECESARY

Ablative is not modified by an adjective

(When it is modified cum is optional)

24

Purpose clauses have their subordinate clause verbs in

The subjunctive

25

Primary tenses in the subjunctive

Present
Perfect

26

Secondary tenses in the subjunctive

Imperfect
Pluperfect

27

Primary sequence what do the subjunctives means

Present- action same time/subsequent to main verb

Perfect- action prior to main verb

28

Secondary sequence what do the subjunctives means

Imperfect- action same time/subsequent to main verb
Pluperfect- action prior to main verb

29

What must we remember about the tenses of the subjunctive in clauses of purpose

Their tense is only relative to the tense of the main verb

30

Perfect passives

All use the perfect passive participle and a version of sum for
Perfect, pluperfect, future perfect indicative
Perfect and pluperfect subjunctive

31

Person who performs the action of a passive verb

Puella a regina terretur

Expressed with "a/ab" + ABLATIVE

The girl is frightened by the queen

32

Amica means

Girlfriend
Prostitute

33

Duco, ducere, duxi, ductus
Doesn't just mean lead but

Consider

34

Book

Liber, libri, M.

35

Free

Liber, libera, liberum

36

Sending to someone

Mitto, mittere, misi, missus
+ ad + accusative

37

Sending for someone

Mitto, mittere, misi, missus
+ dative

38

Pointing something out to someone

Monstro, monstrare, monstravi, monstratus
+ dative

39

Primary indicative tenses

Prsent
Future
Future perfect
Perfect (present perfect is "has" or "have"

40

Present active participle
To shout

Shouting
Who was shouting
Since she was shouting
Although she was shouting
When she was shouting
While she was shouting
If she was shouting

41

Case of the present participle

An action occurring at the same time as the main verb

42

What can the present participle be translated with

Causal- Since
Concessive- Although (tamen is often inserted)
Temporal- When, while
Conditional- if

43

Perfect passive participle
To be frightened

Having-been-frightened
Having been frightened
Who had been frightened
Since she had been frightened
Although she had been frightened
When she had been frightened
After she had been frightened
If she had been frightened

44

Tense of perfect passive participle

An action which occurred prior to the time of the main verb

45

Future active participle
Depart

About-to-depart
About to depart
Who was about to depart
Going to depart
Since/although/when/as/if...was going to depart

46

Future participle tenses

An action which will occur or has occurred subsequent to that of the main verb

47

Future passive participle
Read

Having-to-be-read
To be read
Which had to be read

48

Future passive participle is used for

The gerundive
Obligation, necessity, propriety

49

Active periphrastic meaning

About to

50

Passive periphrastic menaing

Had/have to be desired

51

Personal agent with passive periphrastic is expressed by

Poeta reginae videndus est

Personal agent is expressed by the dative without a preposition

(And not a(ab) + ablative)

The poet must be seen by the queen

52

How is possession expressed

Corona est amico

Dative + sum shows possession

The friend has a book / the book is the friend's

53

"Ante" and "post" govern what case

Accusative case

54

"Impero, imperare, imperavi, imperatus" governs what case

Dative

55

Ruit can me

He rushes
He has rushed

56

Which third declensions are i stems

Nominative and genitive have the same number of syllables

Stem of the noun ends in two consonants except if the second is an l or r (pater, mater is an exception)

Nominative singular neuter ends in e, al, ar (end in -i in ablative and -ia in nominative and accusative plural)

57

How to make indirect statements

Subject is made accusative
Finite verb changed to an infinitive

58

Tense of the infinitive in indirect statements

Relative to that of the main verb
Present- same time
Perfect- prior
Future- sunsequent

59

What case accompanies verbs of separation or deprivation

Ablative

60

How to express origin or descent of a person or thing

Ablative

61

To express place from which

"A(ab)", "e(ex)", "de" + ablative

62

Exceptions from place from which?
How?

Names of towns, cities, small islands, "domus", "rus" -no preposition is used

63

Place to which is expressed

Expressed by "ad" + accusative

64

Exceptions from Place to which

Names of towns, cities, small islands, "domus", "rus" -no preposition is used

65

Locative case

Names of towns, cities, small islands, "domus", "rus"

- to express place in which and place where "at Rome"

1st/2nd -genitive singular, ablative plural
3rd- e/i singular, -ibus plural

66

"Careo, carere, carui, caritus"
Governs?
Lack

Governs the ablative case

67

Personal pronouns with "cum"

Attached such as MECUM

68

Reflexive pronouns

Refers to the subject of its own clause so nominative

69

Possessive adjectives agree with

The thing possessed

70

When reflexive possession is not desired in the third person

A form of is, ea, id in the genitive is used (singular and plural)

71

How to use relative pronoun
(Qui, quae, quod = whom)

GENDER and NUMBER agrees with its antecedent
Its case (NAGDA) is determined by its use in its own clause

72

Interrogative adjective

(Which? What?) is identical n form to the relative pronoun

73

To express accompaniment

Ablative +cum

74

Time when

Expressed by the ablative

75

Time within which

Expressed by the ablative

76

Duration of time

Accusative
(Answers "for how long?")

77

Extent of space

Accusative
(Answers "for how long?")

78

Subordinate clauses within an indirect statement (subject accusative and infinitive) verb?

Verbs in subjunctive, tense according to tense sequence, after the verb at the head that introduces the indirect statement

-the person reporting the statement does not claim responsibility of truth

79

Est homo illius generis

He is a man of that sort

80

Opus est

Cases it goes with

There is need of

What is needed: nominative, ablative, or genitive (less frequently)

Person who is in need: dative case


81

Salutem dicere

"To greet" "to say hello"

82

In (respect to) what is expressed how

Haec femina specie pulchra est

Mea sententia nihil perficient

Ablative without a preposition

This woman is beautiful in (respect to) appearance

In (respect to) my opinion, they will accomplish nothing

83

Two datives in close proximity

Filii matri fructui sunt

Ad urbem saluti mihi venit

Opinio mali periculo erat civitati

One denoted the purpose, the other denotes the person or thing

The sons are (for the purpose of) an asset (with reference) to their mother

He came too the city for (the purpose of) a salvation (with reference) to me

The opinion of the evil was (for the purpose of) a danger (with reference) to the state.

84

Fructui esse

To be an asset to

85

Iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussus
Verb of ordering what construction does it use for an indirect statement

An infinitive with subject accusative

86

Res publica

State, republic

87

Quam ob rem

On account of which thing
For what reason
Why

88

How is a part of a whole group expressed

Fortissimus omnium militum ad me venit

Multi hominum opiniones sapientium laudant

With the genitive

The bravest of all the soldiers came to me

Many of the men praise the opinions of the wise

89

How is a part of a whole group expressed by words

When is this frequent?

Quinque ex militibus domum venerunt

OR "e(ex)" / "de" + ablative

Frequently used when the part is a cardinal number

Five of (out of) the soldiers came home

90

Quam primum

As soon as possible

91

Tam...quam

So...as
As...as

92

Quam + superlative

As...as possible

93

Quam can also be used

How in an exclamatory sense!

94

An abstract noun (amicitia, sapientia)

Adding -ia

friendship, wisdom

95

Sometimes it is best to translate an adjective as

Humiles in tectum domini venimus

An adverb

We came humbly into the master's house

96

Proximus is found with

Proximus turbae fuit

The dative

He was nearest the crowd

97

Similis/dissimilis govern

Genitive or dative case

98

What is an ablative absolute clause

Has no grammatical connection to the rest of the sentence

99

How to make the ablative absolute

Subject is in Ablative
Participle ablative verb

100

How the ablative is translated

With/when/since/although

101

Problem with sum in ablative absolute

No present participle
two nouns in ablative absolute construction used with an implied participle connecting them (with that woman (being) queen)

102

How is cause expressed

Clamare gaudio coepit.
Forma laudabantur

By the ablative (because of)

She began to shout because of joy
They were praised because of beauty

103

How is cause expressed with words

Propter metum faminas interfecit

"Ob" or "propter" + accusative (on account of)

He killed the women on account of fear

104

How is description expressed

Noun in the ablative or genitive, modified by an adjective, expresses the quality of another noun.

105

objective genitive

Amor patriae
Metus belli
cupidus pecuniae

The genitive is the object of the verbAl idea
(What is feared, what is loved, what is desired)

Love of the native land
Fear of war
Desirous of money

106

Subjective genitive

Feminae amor patriae

The genitive is doing the action,

The woman's love of her native land

107

Predicate genitive (Genitive of characteristic)

Hominis spientis est libros legere
Boni est deos laudare

Genitive stands alone (or modified by an adjective)

It is the mark of...

It is the mark of a wise man to read books
It is the mark of a good man to praise the gods