L12: Muscles of the Head and Neck Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L12: Muscles of the Head and Neck Deck (42):
1

What part of the body are axial muscles?

- head and neck
- vertebral column
- thorax, abdomen and pelvis

2

Where do muscles of facial expression originate and attach?

- originate on the skull or superficial fascia
- attach to fascia and skin

3

what are muscles of facial expression innervated by?

- mostly by facial nerve

4

what creates the basis for facial expression and controls the orifices?

- contraction moving the skin

5

what is the only muscle of facial expression NOT innervated by the facial nerve?

Levator palpebrae superioris

6

What nerve innervates the levator palpebrae superioris?

oculomotor nerve

7

Does the levator palpebrae superioris attach to the eyeball?

no

8

what is the function of the levator palpebrae superioris?

- elevates the superior eyelid (palpebrae)

9

What is Bell's Palsy and what does it affect?

- facial nerve lesion
- affects muscles of facial expression

10

Function/movement of muscles of mastication? (hint: movement at what joint)

- move the mandible at the temporomandibular joint

11

What nerve innervates the muscles of mastication?

- mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve

12

What are the four muscles of mastication?

1. temporalis
2. masseter
3. medial pterygoid
4. lateral pterygoid

13

Movement of the mandible: depression?

- mandibular rotation around M-L axis

14

Movement of the mandible: elevation?

- mandibular de-rotation around M-L axis

15

Movement of the mandible: Protrusion?

- anterior slide

16

Movement of the mandible: Retrusion

- posterior slide

17

Movement of the mandible: Lateral deviation?

- one condyle will protrude whilst the opposite condyle spins around a vertical axis
- can be ipsilateral (to same side)
- or contralateral (opposite side)

18

what muscles of the mandible are involved in ipsilateral deviation?

- temporalis
- masseter

19

what muscles of the mandible are involved in contralateral deviation?

- medial pterygoid
- or lateral pterygoid

20

function of extrinsic muscles of the eye?

- control the position of the eye

21

how many rectus (straight) extrinsic muscles in the eye?

-4
- superior, lateral, medial, inferior

22

how many oblique extrinsic muscles of the eye?

- 2
- inferior, superior

23

what nerve innervates the extrinsic muscles of the eye? what are the exceptions?

- mostly the oculomotor nerve
EXCEPTIONS:
- superior oblique (trochlear nerve)
- lateral rectus (abducens nerve)

24

Which extrinsic eye muscles are not innervated by the oculomotor nerve?

- superior oblique (trochlear nerve)
- lateral rectus (abducens nerve)

25

What does "glossus" refer to?

- muscles of the tongue

26

function of muscles of the tongue (glossus) ?

- position and shape of the tongue for speech, mastication, swallowing

27

what is genioglossus?

- tongue protrusion and deviation to the opposite side

28

what nerve innervates the muscles of the tongue?

- mostly hypoglossal nerve

29

function of muscles of the pharynx/larynx?

- swallowing and speech

30

function of muscles of the anterior neck?

- move the head and neck
- support the floor of the mouth

31

what muscle moves the head and neck?

- sternocleidomastoid (SCM)

32

what role are the extrinsic muscles of the larynx?

- elevators
- depressors

33

what does the sternocleidomastoid include?

- sterno: manubrium of sternum
- cleido: medial clavicle
- mastoid: mastoid process and lateral superior nuchal line

34

what nerve innervates the sternocleidomastoid?

accessory nerve

35

unilateral action of the sternocleidomastoid?

- ipsilateral lateral flexion
- contralateral rotation

36

bilateral action of the sternocleidomastoid?

- upper cervical extension
- lower cervical flexion

37

in the muscles of the anterior neck, what do the suprahyoid group attach to?

- the hyoid and either the mandible or temporal bone

38

In the suprahyoid group of the muscles of the anterior neck, what occurs as swallowing?

- fixed mandible = elevate hyoid (swallowing)

39

in the suprahyoid group of the muscles of the anterior neck, what occurs as mastication?

- hyoid fixed = depressed mandible (mastication)

40

In the muscles of the anterior neck, what does the infrahyoid group attach to?

- hyoid, thyroid cartilage (larynx) and sternum

41

What muscles are in the infrahyoid group of the anterior neck?

- sternohyoid
- sternothyroid
- thyrohyoid

42

what muscles are in the suprahyoid group of the anterior neck?

- digastric
-mylohyoid
- stylohyoid