Flashcards in L8: Synovial Joints Deck (62):
what structural characteristic for a synovial joint is not seen at fibrous or cartilaginous joints?
- joint cavity
friction between bones at synovial joints is prevented by?
- hyaline articular cartilage
function of all synovial joints?
what is the double layered capsule in a synovial joint?
- articular capsule
what are the layers of the double layered articular capsule?
- outer layer: fibrous layer
- inner layer: synovial membrane
how much viscous synovial fluid is in a joint? what is the function?
function of sensory nerves in synovial joints?
- detect pain
- proprioception (detect changes and adjust movement)
association of tendons with synovial joints?
- stabilize joints because they pass across or around a joint
- can limit range/amount of movement
- bone to bone
function of collagen in ligaments?
- collagen bundles aligned to resist tensile forces
function of ligaments in synovial bones?
- resist abnormal/excessive movement
ligaments do not interfere with?
- normal movement
function of capsular (intrinsic) ligaments
- thickening of fibrous capsule
where is the extracapsular intrisic ligament?
- external and separate to the fibrous capsule
where is the intracapsular intrinsic ligament?
- enclosed inside the fibrous capsule
function of fibrocartilage pads?
- improve congruency of articular surfaces
- stress distribution
what is the labrum? example?
- fibrocartilage rim attached to the edge of a socket
- coxal joints
function of labrum?
- increase joint contact area
- are deformable
what are fat pads?
- soft deformable space fillers as the joint moves and the joint cavity changes shape
function of fat pads?
- distribute stress
what are bursae?
- synovial membrane sacs either separate or continuous with the joint
where are bursae located?
- sites of friction
synovial membranes are designed to?
- permit movement
the amount and direction of movement in synovial joints is determined by?
- shape of articular surfaces
- associated joint structures
characteristics of plane (gliding) joints?
- flat articular surfaces
example of plane (gliding) joints)
- intertarsal joints
characteristics of hinge joints?
- 1 convex and 1 concave articulating surface
example of hinge joint?
- humero-ulnar joint
- interphalangeal joints
characteristics of pivot joint?
- bony pivot in an osteoligamentous ring
in pivot joints, the bone rotates around what axis?
- longitudinal axis
example of pivot joints?
- median atlanto-axial joint
- proximal radioulnar joint
characteristics of bicondylar joints?
- 2 convex condyles articulate with concave or flat surfaces
example of bicondylar joints?
- atlanto-occipital joints
characteristics of ellipsoid joints?
- 1 oval convex and 1 oval concave articulating surface
example of ellipsoid joints?
- metacarpophalangeal (MCP)
- radiocarpal joint (RCJ)
characteristics of saddle joint?
- 2 concavo-convex surfaces
example of saddle joints?
- 1st carpometacarpal joint
characteristics of ball and socket joints?
- spherical head articulates with a cup-shaped socket
examples of ball and socket joints?
- hip joint
- glenohumeral joint
what are the two joint spaces in the temporomandibular joint?
- gliding mostly in the superior joint space
- hinge action mostly in the inferior joint space
function of plane/gliding joints?
function of hinge joints?
function of pivot joints?
function of bicondylar joints?
- predominately uniaxial
function of ellipsoid joint?
function of saddle joints?
function of ball and socket joints?
what is uniaxial?
- 1 axis
- 1 plane of movement
example of uniaxial joints?
example of uniaxial plane joint?
example of uniaxial hinge joint?
- flexion/extension in sagittal plane around coronal axis
example of uniaxial pivot joint?
- axial rotation or supination/pronation in the transverse plane around a longitudinal axis
what is a predominately uniaxial joint?
- main movement in 1 plane
- limited movement in orthagonal plane
- bicondylar joint
example of predominately uniaxial bicondylar joint?
- tibiofemoral joint
- mainly flexion/extension in the sagittal plane around a coronal axis
- limited rotation around the vertical axis
characteristics of biaxial joints?
- 2 axes
- 2 planes of movement
example of biaxial joints?
how does flexion/extension in a biaxial joint occur?
- in the sagittal plane around a coronal axis
how does abduction/adduction occur in biaxial joints?
- in the coronal plane around a sagittal axis
what are multiaxial joints?
- multiple axes and planes of movement
hows does flexion/extension occur in ball and socket joints?
- in the sagittal plane around a coronal axis
how does abduction/adduction in ball and socket joints occur?
- coronal plane around a sagittal axis