L8: Synovial Joints Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L8: Synovial Joints Deck (62):
1

what structural characteristic for a synovial joint is not seen at fibrous or cartilaginous joints?

- joint cavity

2

friction between bones at synovial joints is prevented by?

- hyaline articular cartilage

3

function of all synovial joints?

- diarthrosis

4

what is the double layered capsule in a synovial joint?

- articular capsule

5

what are the layers of the double layered articular capsule?

- outer layer: fibrous layer
- inner layer: synovial membrane

6

how much viscous synovial fluid is in a joint? what is the function?

- 1ml
- lubricant
- nourishment

7

function of sensory nerves in synovial joints?

- detect pain
- proprioception (detect changes and adjust movement)

8

association of tendons with synovial joints?

- stabilize joints because they pass across or around a joint
- can limit range/amount of movement

9

ligaments connect?

- bone to bone

10

function of collagen in ligaments?

- collagen bundles aligned to resist tensile forces

11

function of ligaments in synovial bones?

- resist abnormal/excessive movement

12

ligaments do not interfere with?

- normal movement

13

function of capsular (intrinsic) ligaments

- thickening of fibrous capsule

14

where is the extracapsular intrisic ligament?

- external and separate to the fibrous capsule

15

where is the intracapsular intrinsic ligament?

- enclosed inside the fibrous capsule

16

function of fibrocartilage pads?

- improve congruency of articular surfaces
- stress distribution

17

what is the labrum? example?

- fibrocartilage rim attached to the edge of a socket
- glenohumeral
- coxal joints

18

function of labrum?

- increase joint contact area
- are deformable

19

what are fat pads?

- soft deformable space fillers as the joint moves and the joint cavity changes shape

20

function of fat pads?

- distribute stress

21

what are bursae?

- synovial membrane sacs either separate or continuous with the joint

22

where are bursae located?

- sites of friction

23

synovial membranes are designed to?

- permit movement

24

the amount and direction of movement in synovial joints is determined by?

- shape of articular surfaces
- associated joint structures

25

characteristics of plane (gliding) joints?

- flat articular surfaces

26

example of plane (gliding) joints)

-intercarpal joints
- intertarsal joints

27

characteristics of hinge joints?

- 1 convex and 1 concave articulating surface

28

example of hinge joint?

- humero-ulnar joint
- interphalangeal joints

29

characteristics of pivot joint?

- bony pivot in an osteoligamentous ring

30

in pivot joints, the bone rotates around what axis?

- longitudinal axis

31

example of pivot joints?

- median atlanto-axial joint
- proximal radioulnar joint

32

characteristics of bicondylar joints?

- 2 convex condyles articulate with concave or flat surfaces

33

example of bicondylar joints?

-tibiofemoral joint
- atlanto-occipital joints

34

characteristics of ellipsoid joints?

- 1 oval convex and 1 oval concave articulating surface

35

example of ellipsoid joints?

- metacarpophalangeal (MCP)
- radiocarpal joint (RCJ)

36

characteristics of saddle joint?

- 2 concavo-convex surfaces

37

example of saddle joints?

- 1st carpometacarpal joint

38

characteristics of ball and socket joints?

- spherical head articulates with a cup-shaped socket

39

examples of ball and socket joints?

- hip joint
- glenohumeral joint

40

what are the two joint spaces in the temporomandibular joint?

- gliding mostly in the superior joint space
- hinge action mostly in the inferior joint space

41

function of plane/gliding joints?

- uniaxial

42

function of hinge joints?

- uniaxial

43

function of pivot joints?

- uniaxial

44

function of bicondylar joints?

- predominately uniaxial

45

function of ellipsoid joint?

- biaxial

46

function of saddle joints?

- biaxial

47

function of ball and socket joints?

multiaxial

48

what is uniaxial?

- 1 axis
- 1 plane of movement

49

example of uniaxial joints?

- plane
- hinge
- pivot

50

example of uniaxial plane joint?

- glide/translation

51

example of uniaxial hinge joint?

- flexion/extension in sagittal plane around coronal axis

52

example of uniaxial pivot joint?

- axial rotation or supination/pronation in the transverse plane around a longitudinal axis

53

what is a predominately uniaxial joint?

- main movement in 1 plane
- limited movement in orthagonal plane
- bicondylar joint

54

example of predominately uniaxial bicondylar joint?

- tibiofemoral joint
- mainly flexion/extension in the sagittal plane around a coronal axis
- limited rotation around the vertical axis

55

characteristics of biaxial joints?

- 2 axes
- 2 planes of movement

56

example of biaxial joints?

- condylar
- saddle

57

how does flexion/extension in a biaxial joint occur?

- in the sagittal plane around a coronal axis

58

how does abduction/adduction occur in biaxial joints?

- in the coronal plane around a sagittal axis

59

what are multiaxial joints?

- multiple axes and planes of movement

60

hows does flexion/extension occur in ball and socket joints?

- in the sagittal plane around a coronal axis

61

how does abduction/adduction in ball and socket joints occur?

- coronal plane around a sagittal axis

62

how does medial/lateral rotation occur in ball and socket joints?

- in the transverse plane around a longitudinal axis