L9: Lower Limb Skeleton Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L9: Lower Limb Skeleton Deck (49):
1

what is the primary function of the lower limb? (hint:2)

- weight-bearing
-locomotion

2

function of pelvic girdle?

- connection to axial skeleton
- weight transfer
- part of pelvis

3

function of hip joint?

- mobility
- stability

4

function of femur?

- lever
- force transfer
- muscle attachment

5

function of knee joint?

- shortens/lengthens lower limb

6

function of patella

- increases mechanical advantage of the knee extensors

7

function of tibia

- lever
- force transfer
- muscle attachment

8

function of fibula

muscle attachment

9

function of ankle/foot

- weight-bearing
- balance
-advancing body forward

10

what does the pelvis comprise of?

- two hip bones
- sacrum
- coccyx

11

the abdominal and pelvic cavities are continuous at the ??

- pelvic inlet

12

what is the greater (false) pelvis? what does it form?

-area superior to pelvic inlet
- forms inferior part of abdominal cavity

13

what is the lesser (true) pelvis?

- area inferior to the pelvic inlet
- houses the pelvic organs

14

male vs female pubic angles?

men: 90degrees
women: 100 degrees

15

male vs female pelvic surfaces?

men: robust/heavy
female: light/smooth

16

male vs female pelvic shape?

men: pelvic inlet heart-shaped
female: round

17

male vs female pelvic inlet width?

male: narrow
female: wide

18

male vs female ilia spread

male: ilia less splayed
female: laterally spread

19

male vs female ilia extension

male: ilia extends up to sacrum
female: little extension

20

iliac tuberosity - sacral tuberosity =

sacroiliac interosseous ligament = fibrous syndesmosis

21

what is the joint stucture and function of the auricular surfaces of the sacroiliac joints?

synovial plane joint

22

structure and function of sacroiliac joints?

- synovial gliding
- fibrous syndesmosis

23

pubic symphysis =

- fibrocartilage symphysis

24

what do sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments prevent?

- sacrum from tilting anteriorly

25

what is the glenohumeral joint?

- articulation between the glenoid fossa of the scapula and the head of humerus

26

what is the hip (coxal) joint?

- articulation between the acetabulum and the head of the femur

27

what is the structure and function of the hip joint?

synovial ball and socket, multiaxial diarthrosis

28

what is the structure and function of the glenohumeral joint?

synovial ball and socket, multiaxial diarthrosis

29

what is the structure and function of the superior tibiofibular joint?

synovial gliding/plane joint, uniaxial diarthrosis

30

structure and function of inferior tibiofibular joint?

- fibrous syndesmosis, amphiarthrosis

31

structure and function of tibiofemoral joint (knee joint)

- synovial "modified hinge", uniaxial diarthrosis

32

in the tibiofemoral joint, medial femoral condyle is larger than the lateral condyle which results in?

- some rotation about the long axis of the bone during flexion-extension of knee which results in twisting and stretching of ligaments to lock knee in extension

33

in the tibiofemoral joint, what are fibrocartilaginous menisci?

- act as "space-fillers" to improve joint congruency
- reduce joint stress
- often torn in knee injuries

34

in knee injuries, what is often torn?

the menisci of the tibiofemoral joint

35

what is the structure and function of the patella and patellofermoal joint?

synovial gliding/plane joint: uniaxial diarthrosis

36

functional role of patella?

- increase momentum of quadriceps group
- strengthen knee extension

37

structure and function of proximal tibiofibular joint?

synovial gliding joint: uni-axial diarthrosis

38

structure and function of distal tibiofibular joint?

fibrous syndesmosis: amphiarthrosis

39

how many foot bones?

- 7 tarsals
- 5 metatarsals
- 14 phalanges

40

what is the talocrural (ankle) joint?

- articulation between tibia, fibula, and the talus

41

what kind of joint is the talocrural joint

- synovial hinge joint: dorsiflexion - plantarflexion

42

what kind of ligaments do hinge joints have

-collateral

43

purpose of strong deltoid ligament on medial side of ankle?

-provides stability
- restricts eversion of foot

44

why is the subtalar joint complex?

- two synovial joints
- allows gliding and rotation
- permits inversion and eversion of rearfoot

45

joints of the mid-food and forefoot allow?

-accommodation of the foot to various ground surfaces

46

structure, movement and function of intertarsal joints?

- synovial plane joints; diarthrosis
- inversion - eversion

47

structure, movement and function of tarsometatarsal joints

- synovial plane joints; diarthrosis
- inversion - eversion

48

structure, movement and function of metatarsophalangeal joints

- synovial, ellipsoid/condylar joints
- flexion - exention
- abduction - adduction

49

structure, movement and function of interphalangeal joints

-synovial hinge joints; diarthrosis
- flexion - extension