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Flashcards in L29 Deck (33):
1

Describe characteristics of archaea.

Hallmark = cell wall WITHOUT peptidoglycan
Don't cause human disease

2

What are the 3 broad categories of bacteria by shape?

Cocci = round
- Steptococci = line of round shaped bacteria
- Staphylococci = grape formation
Bacilli = oval
- Steptobacilli
Other
- Fusobacterium = enlarged rod
- B deliovibrio = comma
- Helical form (helicobacter)
- Spirochete

3

What is alpha vs beta vs gamma hemolysis?

On blood plates
Alpha = Hgb --> metHgb
Beta = complete hemolysis w/ zone of exclusion
Gamma = no hemolysis

4

What are the 4 structures seen in all bacteria?

1. Cell envelope/membrane
2. Cytoplasm
3. Ribosomes
4. 1+ chromosomes

5

Describe the cell envelope of gram + bacteria.

2 layers
1. Peptidoglycan (outer)
- THICK
2. Phospholipid membrane (inner)

6

Which molecule is unique to the peptidoglycan layer gram + bacteria?

LTA = lipoteichoic acid
Spans the outer membrane & connects with phospholipid membrane

7

How many/what are the layers of gram - bacteria?

3 layers
1. Asymmetrical outer membrane
- LPS face outward
- Phospholipids face inward
2. Peptidoglycan in perimplasmic space
- Smaller
3. Phospholipid inner membrane

8

How many/what are the layers of acid fast bacteria?

2.5 layers
1/2, Mycolic acid with lipid tails = outer
1. Peptidoglycans + cell waxes (sugars):
LAM = lip-arabin-omannan
ABG = ara-bino-galactan
UNIQUE to acid fast bacteria
2. Phospholipid inner membrane

9

What is the PAMP for gram +? PRR?

PAMP = LTA (lipteichoic acid)
PRR = TLR2

10

What is the PAMP for gram -? PRR?

LPS & TLR4

11

What is a fxn of the periplasmic space for gram -?

Barrier to non-polar molecules that enter through pores in the outer membrane before crossing in the phospholipid inner membrane pores

12

What color do gram +/- stain with crystal violet/safranin staining?

Gram + = purple
Gram - = red

13

What are the PRRs for acid fast bacteria?

TLR1/2/6
Various b/c the outer lipid covering of acid fast bacteria can be so variable

14

How do you stain acid fast bacteria?

Carbolfuchsin stain (targets cell waxes)
No decolorization with acid alcohol
Counter stain with methylene blue
NET
- Acid fast = red due to carbolfuchsin
- Host cells or gram +/- = blue

15

What is the role of peptidoglycans in the cell wall?

Protects against changes in osmotic pressures

16

Describe the structure of peptidoglycans. What are the main 2 parts?

1. Sugars = NAM & NAG
2. Linked by AAs

17

What is the AA linkage order for gram + vs - bacteria?

+ = alanine, glutamine, LYSINE, alanine, alanine
- = A, Glu, DI-AMINO-PIMELIC ACID, A, A

18

How do D conformations of AAs confer natural protection for bacteria?

Body doesn't have an D AAs
Aka our peptidases are meant for L AAs

19

Which enzyme inserts and links NAG & NAMs together?

Transglycosylase

20

Which enzyme forms the AA cross links between peptidoglycan layers?

Transpeptidase

21

How do beta lactam antibiotics work? What some examples of beta lactam drugs?

Inhibits transPEPtidases
Build up of peptidoglycan precursors
Triggers digestion of existing peptidoglycans & inhibits synthesis on new ones
EXs:
- Penicillin

22

Which types of bacteria do you find flagella on? Which don't you?

On bacilli & spirochetes (mainly gram -)
NOT cocci

23

Which direction do flagella move when they are attracted to something?

Anti-clockwise

24

Which direction do flagella move when they are repelled?

Clockwise

25

What are the 3 parts of flagella?

Basal body @ inner membrane
Hook @ outer membrane
Filament

26

Which bacteria are monotichous?

1 flagella = monotrichous = vibrio

27

What is a bacteria called if it has multiple flagella from 1 spot?

Lophotrichous

28

What is a bacteria called if it has 1 flagella coming from each end?

Amphitrichous

29

What is a bacteria called if it has many flagella? Give an example.

Peritrichous
E.Coli

30

What is the difference between pili vs fimbriae?

Pili = gram + & -
- Longer, can connect between bacteria (transfer of genetic material)
Fimbriae = short, surrounds cell membrane
BOTH adhesion to surfaces and other bacteria

31

What is the difference between capsule vs. slime layer?

Slime - important for life
- Protects from dehydration/loss of nutrients
Capsule - helps pathogenic mechanism
- Sticky, adhesion to host

32

What is an endospore?

Cell reverting into hibernation for survival
Likely to be gram +

33

What are plasmids?

Circular, dsDNA that can be transferred between viruses/bacteria to increase pick up/trade resistance markers
Can replicate on own in host