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Flashcards in L32 Deck (14):
1

What is the epidemiological triad?

Host, agent, environment
United by a vector

2

What is the example for direct transmission?

Person to person

3

What are the 2 examples of indirect transmission?

Common vehicle (air, water, food)
Vector (insect, animal)

4

Define outbreak. What is the rate equation?

Increased event incidence vs expected rates
= new cases/population at risk
Depends on type of outbreak & setting

5

How many infected people determine a foodborne disease outbreak?

2+ related illness following consumption of common food item

6

What are the 3 aspects of a case definition?

1. Time & place
2. Restrictions: person details like age, gender, ethnicity
3. Clinical criteria: symptoms & clinical tests

7

What are limits that challenge the development of case definition?

New definition of the disease
Emerging clinical picture
Lab tests are limited or not definitive

8

Define sensitivity, include the equation.

Correctly identify new infection
= a/a+c

9

Define specificity, include the equation.

True negatives - people who don't have infection
= d/b+d

10

Why do you want lower false positives?

Increases positive predictive value (PPV)

11

What is the x axis for the epidemic curve? Y axis?

X = time (period, used in rate calculation)
Y = # cases

12

What are the options for the shape of the epidemic curve?

Single exposure
Multiple exposure
Continuous exposure
Person to person transmission

13

What are 2 things your disease hypothesis should contain?

Source of infection
Mode of transmission

14

What are 2 tools for depict the data about your hypothesis? What about studies you could do?

1. Epidemic curve
2. Line listing = descriptive
Studies:
Case control = most common
- CALCULATE OR!
Cohort