L47: Urogenital Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L47: Urogenital Development Deck (58):
1

The Proliferation of the intermediate mesoderm (IM) generates the __________.

Urogenital plate

2

Nephorogenesis involves the successive appearance of 3 kidney primordia. What are they called? (Top to bottom when fetus is facing left)

1. Pronephros
2. Mesonephros
3. Metanephros

3

The ______ derives from the mesonephric duct, while the kidney derives from the caudal end of the nephrogenic cord

Ureter

4

The collecting system of the urinary system (kidney) derives from what?

Uretic bud

5

When the kidney is being developed, what structure is part of the external region?

Ureter

6

When kidney is being developed, what structures are part of the internal region?

Renal pelvis, major calyx, minor calyx, collecting tubes

7

The excretoru system derives from the ________?

Metanephric bastema

8

Changes in the body shape makes the kidney take an ____ position

Abdominal

9

There is disappearance of arteries of kidney during formation except for the __________

Accessory renal artery

10

The cloaca (hindgut region) divides to form the primitive _______, from which the _____ and ___________ derive

Urogenital sinus; bladder & pelvic urethra

11

While the absorption of the mesonephric ducts makes the ureters join the bladder wall, the kidneys äscent" induces the develpment of the ___________

Vesical trigone

12

The genital system derives from the ________ and adjacent ducts

Mesonephros

13

An embryo is bipotent and can develop to male or female. Mesonephros gives rise to 3 things- what are they?

- Mesonephic duct: gives rise to male genital ducts, requires androgens to develop, degenerates in females in response to low androgen levels
- Genital ridge: gives rise to the testes or ovaries (source of androgens and estrogens)
- Paramesonephric (Mullerian) duct: gives rise to female genital ducts, does not require hormones to develop, degenerates in males in response to Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS)

14

Regardless of the genetic sex, the _____ have an initial indifferent stage

gonads

15

The primordial germ cells (PGCs) are close in proximity/ associated with what two things?

- Proliferating coelomic epithelium
- Primitive sex cords

16

Primordial germ cells give rise to either what or what?

Spermatogonia (male) or Oogonia (female)

17

Priminitive sex cords form what eventually?

Seminiferous cords, which gather together in loops

18

Tunica albuginea formed by thickening of coelmic epithelium that is losing connection with ___________

Seminiferous cords

19

In male embryos the indifferent gonad differentiate into testes under the ____________ gene of the Y chromosome

influence of SRY

20

In the female embryo, the absence of the SRY gene results in dissociation of the primitve sex cords and differentiation of the gonad into _____

ovaries

21

The medullary cords in the female embryo are going to _____

Degenerate and fill with vessels, tissues, etc

22

In ovary, in most mammal (cow, sow), the central location will disappear. In the mare, it will be the opposite the region from the primitive that would disappear will be the __________

Periphery elements

23

Only one region of primitive cord survives- it will get divided and germ cells get enclosed by coelemic cells that give rise to ________

Granulosa cells

24

Primordial follicle derives from the _______

Seminiferous cords

25

In primitive cords, males give rise to ______ cells, females _____ cells

Leydig; theca

26

The _______ derive from the mesonephric tubules, while the epididymis, ductus deferens, ampullas and vesicular glands derive from the ____________.

Efferent ducts; mesonephric duct

27

What is another name for the paramesonephric duct remnant?

Male uterus

28

The uterine tubes, uterus and cranial region of the vagina derive from the ____________ duct, while ___________________ & _____ derive from the urogenital sinus

Paramesonephric duct; caudal region of the vagina and vestibule

29

The dengenerating proxmial mesonephric tubules is called? What about the distal ""?

Epoophorom; paroophorom

30

The ________ derives from mesenchymal cells that proliferate and surround the cloacal membrane

external genitalia

31

The Urogenital system derives frrom what two things?

1. Intermediate mesoderm (IM)
2. Mesodermal coelomic epithelium

32

Mesenchymal cells migrate around the cloacal membrane and form the __________. These fuse to form the __________. Dorsally, as the cloca dives, the folds form the ________ folds and _______ fold.

Cloacal folds
Genital tubercle
Urogenital folds and anal folds

33

Mesenchymal cells also forma second pair of elevations- the ____________

Genital swellings

34

In males, induced by androgens, the _______ gives rise to the erticle tissue and tunica albuginea of the penis, and the urogenital folds to the caudal region of the penile urethra

Genital tubercle

35

The cranial region of the urethra derive from the _______ cells at the tip of the penis

Ectodermal

36

Genital swellings give rise to the ____

Scrotum

37

The genital tuercle in males under androgen influence elongates to form the _________

Phallus

38

The urogenital folds of the male folds forward so that they form the ________________

Lateral walls of the urethral groove

39

The urogenital folds cover the urethral plate to form the ______

Penile urethra

40

Ectodermal cells at the tip of the ____ form the __________________

glands
Most cranial region of the urethra

41

Genital swellings, which are now the scrotal swellings, move cranially and each amkes up half of the ______ and are separated by the ________

Scrotum
Scrotal septum

42

If females, induced by estrogens, the genital tubercle gives rise to the _____, while the urogenital folds and genital swellings to the ______. the _____ derives from the urogenital sinus

Clitoris
Vulva
Vestibule

43

In the female, the urogenital folds remain separated (by the urogenital groove) and form the ______ of the vulva

Labia

44

The genital swellings of the female as well as urogenital folds give rise to the labia ___ and ____

Minora and majora

45

The caudal area of the urogenital sinus (and urogenital groove) gives rise to the _____

Vestible

46

Ovaries produce _____

Estrogens

47

Testes produce ____ and ____________

Androgens and Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3)

48

Testis descent is necessary for ______ but not for ________. However, proper steroidogenesis is necessary for testis _____

Spermatogenesis but not steroidogenesis
Testis descent

49

What are the two type of testes?

1. Abdominal testes
2. Scrotal testes

50

In testicond species, both ovaries and testes descend ______

partially

51

Testis descent occurs in what two phases and by what?*

1. Abdominal
2. Extra-abdominal

Caused by gubernaculum

52

What is a gubernaculum?

A band of mesenchymal tissue, extends from the caudal pole to the testis to the genital swellings

53

What does the intra-abdominal phase consists of? What hormone does it depend more on?

- Reduction of size of gubernaculum
INSL3

54

What does the extra-abdominal phase consist of? What hormon does it depend more on?

- Increase size of gubernaculum
- Reduction of size of gubernaculum
Androgens

55

Time of descent for these species: horse, cattle, dog, pig

Horse: during 10-11th month gestation
Cattle: During 4th month gestation
Dog: 3-25 days postnatally
Pig: during 3rd month of gestation

56

What does the lack of androgens and INSL3 by the testes during fetal life result in?

Cryptorchid male

57

Presence of functional glands, masculine behavior and phenotype in animals without scrotal testes and clinical history of castration indicates a cryptorchid male in which the cause involved is a mechanical defect due to what two things?**

- Deficient formation or action of the gubernaculum
- Lower levels of androgens or INSL3

58

Absence of puberty and male phenotype in animals without scrotal testes and clinical history of castration indicate a cryptorchid male in which the cause involved is a lack of androgen and/or INSL3 secretion during fetal life due to what 2 things?**

- Severe abnormalities in Leydig cells
- Environmental factors severely affecting Leydig cells (eg endocrine disruptors)