L34: Mid-Hindgut Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L34: Mid-Hindgut Deck (33):
1

What is specialized about the GI system of CANINES?

'Simple'- roughly 4x body length

2

What is specialized about the GI system of EQUINES? (3)

- Hindgut specialist- very roughly 12x body length - Elaborated cecum for fermentation - Sacculated colon

3

What is specialized about the GI system of BOVINES? (3)

- Foregut specialists- very roughly 20x body length - Elaborated stomach for fermentation - Elongated ascending colon

4

What are the three parts of the SI (midgut)?*

Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum

5

What is the function of SI? (3)

1. Secretion of intestinal juices 2. Complete basic conversion of food into small absorbable molecules 3. Absorption

6

What is absorption of SI aided by? (4)

Aided by: - Length or SI - Internal SA - Vascularized villi (AA, simple sugars) - Lacteals (FA and glycerol)

7

Mesenteric vessels and innervation travel within the mesentery to sustain ___ and _____

Jejunum and Ileum

8

Part of jejunum that is closer to duodenum is considered?

Proximal

9

Circular folds, aka ____, are permanent features that _______!*

Plicae circulares- increase SA

10

Less SA at part of ____ and rather smooth at first part of ____

Ileum, colon

11

Long straight arteries in the jejunum are called

Vasa recta

12

Peyer's patches are located ___?

Located toward end of ileum

13

General characteristics between Jejunum and Ileum: wall, diameter, vasa recta, arcades, mesenteric fat, plicae circulares, peyer patches (lymphoid)

14

Functions of comparative LI? (3)

- Lubricate feces (by goblet cells) for passage

- Colon absorbs water, vits, electrolytes

- Ctrl diameter of fecal mass

15

In the carnivorans, there are no significant functions of the ileocolic junction and cecum, however, it is unsualy because these two structures ______

 Have no direct connection

16

The cecum communites with the ascending colon through _______ to __________.

Cecocolic orifice adjacent to the ileal orifice

17

Up to ___% of horse's energy needs are met by microbial fermentation products, mainly as VFA; the clon reabsorbs ____% of water assocaited with fermentation.

75%, 90-95%

18

Equine large intestine is made up of what three things?

1. Ascending Colon (LV, RV, LD, RD)

2. Transverse Colon

3. Descending Colon

19

Development of equine cecum- what occurs?

Stippled part is homologous with cecum of other species

Non-stippled part is the annexed first part of colon

The cecocolic orifice is a constrictrion of the ascending colons

20

On the equine ventral abdominal view, there are key features called ___?

Haustra (sacculations) and tenia coli (long muscle stripes..not found in carnivorans)

21

What is defecation? (process)

-Fecal mass passes through coon by peristalsis, antiperistalsis, rhythmic segmentation and mass movement

- Stretches rectal wall stimulates voluntary straining, causes anal sphincter to relax

22

What are compostion of feces?

- Water, fiber, bacteria, mucus, dead & living bacteria, contents of anal sacs, sloughed intestinal cells, stercobilin* BILE REMNANTS (pigment) 

23

What is intestinal volvulus?

Complete twisting of a loop of intestine around its mesenteric attachment site- this endangers blood supply which can lead to necrosis of affected bowel; there is also reddened poriton of colon indicative of strangulation

24

Arterial Supply to Mid and Hindgut- 2 main arteries, supplies what?*

1. Cranial Mesenteric Artery

(Supplies MIDGUT)

2. Caudal Mesenteric Artery

(Supplies HINDGUT)

25

What does cranial Mesenteric artery

SI, ascending colon (right), transverse colon (middle) 

26

Ileocolic artery supplies blood to?

Portions of ascending colon and cecum

27

Caudal mesenteric artery branches?

Left colic artery, cranial rectal (rectum)

28

Critical anastomosis at middle and left colic?

Middle Colic- Cranial MA

Left Colic- Caudal MA

Where there is a junction/ sharing

29

Similar anastomosis between right colic and ileocolic in horses; look for?

Gastrophilus Larvae (nematode from gastric infections)

30

Venous Drainage of Midgut and Hindgut Derivatives: (pic) 

31

All lymph in this picture drain to ____*

Cisterna Chyli, a large reservoir in the dorsal part of abdominal wall*

32

All venous drainage from any organ that had food that ran through it has to go to liver via _____ then blood drains from liver to ____ by ____ vein (back of liver open up CVC)***!!!! 

Portal vein;

Caudal vena cava;

Hepatic Vein

33

**All venous draininge from any organ that had food that ran through it must first go to the ____ by the portal vein, then blood drains from liver to the caudal vena cava by the ____ vein- this is the predominant way the portal vena drainage connects to caval vena drainage!!**

Liver

Hepatic vein