L48-49: Lymphatic system I & II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L48-49: Lymphatic system I & II Deck (104)
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1

What does the lymphatic system collect? (3)

Interstitial fluids, absorbed fats, leaked proteins

2

What makes the largest % of lymph (out of all the ones that it collects)?

Interstitial fluid

3

Where does the lymph system return to?

Venous system

4

Where does the lymph system NOT exist in? (everywhere EXCEPT what places) (4)

Cartilage, cornea, CNS, epidermis

5

What does the lymph system not have?

Central pump

6

Where is the lymph system open-ended? Close-ended?

Open-ended: periphery Close-ended: proximally

7

Origin of lymph is from the ________

Interstitial fluid

8

What are 3 features of the lymph capillaries?

1. Cells overlap 2. Very thin walls (same wall layers as other vessles but one endothelial cell think) 3. No tight junctions

9

What makes sure the lymph vessles "stay in place"?

Anchoring filament

10

What are 4 features of the lymphatic collecting vessels?

1. Thicker walls 2. Presence of valves 3. Superficial: travel with larger veins 4. Deep: travel with larger arteries

11

What do the valves on the lymphatic collecting vessles do?

Prevent backflow*

12

What happens to antigens if they are present in the body?

Removed

13

What "type" of lymph is going in from the periphery? What "type" is going out of the hilum?

"dirty" lymph in from periphery "Clean" lymph out from hilum

14

Lymph from intersitial spaces travels to ---> 3 things

Lymphatic capillaries

Lymphatic coll. vessles

At least one lymph node

15

Gathering of lymph nodes flow to what 3 things?

Lymphatic trunks Lymphatic ducts Venous system

16

Immunity is the response of cells and tissues to ______

Antigens

17

There are two types of immune reactions- what are they?

Innate response Adaptive response

18

What are 3 features of the innate response type of immune reactions?

1. No requirement for previous exposure 2. Non-specific response 3. Immediate and rapid response

19

What are 3 features of the adaptive response type of immune reactions?

1. Requires previous exposure 2. Recognition of diverse antigens 3. Delayed response

20

The innate immune response provides the " _____"

First line of defense

21

The innate immune response consists of cells that __, _____, or present ____.

Recruit, phagocytose, or present antigens

22

What are the two antigen-presenting cells (APCs)? What do they do?

Macrophages and dendritic cells - Trigger adaptive immune resonse

23

What is this a structure of?

Lymph capillaries

24

The lymph moves in one direction in the lymphatic collecting vessels- which direction is this?

Left to right

25

Name these innate immune response cells from left to right- also which two are APCs?

Mast cells, granulocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells

 

The macrophages and dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells

26

In adaptive immune response, what are the main cells involved?

Lymphocytes

27

What are the two types of lympocytes?

B and T lymphocytes

28

What is the type of immune response of B lymphocytes and what are they activated by?

Humoral (antibody) immune response

Activated by: "externalized" antigens

29

What type of immune response will T lymphocytes have? What are they activated by?

Cell-mediated immune response

Activated by "internalized" antigens APCs needed

30

What are the two effectors B lympthocytes?

1. Plasma cells

2. B memory cells

31

What are the 3 effectors of T lymphocytes?

1. Cytotoxic

2. Helper

3. Regulatory (suppressor)

32

What is this image of and what does it do?

Parenchyma- working cells

Packed lymphocytes that produce antigens

33

What is this image of and what does it do?

Stroma

retciular tissue- except in thymus

Specialized collegen found in places that filter (lymph nodes)

34

What are high endothelial venule (HEVs)?

Specialized post-capillary venule

35

Where are HEVs found?

Most lymphoid organs except spleen

36

What is diapedesis?

WBCs move in and out of capillaries

37

What structure is shown and what type of tissue is seen? What do we see that they are trying to do?

Simple cuboidal epithelium- therefore High endothelial venule (HEV) in lymphoid organ

WBC is trying to sneak out

38

Where are the lymphocytes "educated"?

Primary lymphoid organs

39

Origin of lymphocytes?

Bone marrow

40

Where are B-cells made in?

Bone marrow

41

T-cells are made in _____ but educated in the ______

Made in bone marrow and moves to THYMUS to get educated

42

What are secondary lymphoid organs? (3)

B and T lymphocytes work together to FIGHT antigen

Site of action!

-Diffuse lymphoid tissues, lymph nodes, spleen

43

The bone marrow is?

Primary lymphoid organ

44

Functions of bone marrow? (2)

Form "generic" lymphocytes

"Educate" B lymphocytes

45

In bone marrow, ___ is reticular tissue. ____ is hematopoetic cells.

Stroma is reticular tissue

Parenchyma is hemotapoetic cells

46

What is the primary lymphoid organ?

Thymus

47

Diff btwn primary and secondary lymphoid organ?*

Primary: where cells are educated

SEcondary: where they fight

48

Thymus gets relatively smaller with ___

Age

49

What is this? and what is it and what is it NOT (tissue)?

Unique strma of thymus- this is NOT reticular tissue but it is EPITHELIAL TISSUE (b/c of its function..BTB/ gatekeepers)

50

Why are thymus epithelial tissue?*

Policing, need to be highly regulated!!*

51

Thymus creates a _____ for education

Mcroenvironment

52

What are the arrow and the dots and blue circles indicating in the thymus?

Arrow: CT Capsule- keeps maturing T cells in and antigens out

... : CT trabecula- divdies thymus into incomplete lobules

Blue dot: lobules are still connected at bases

53

What is each color representing in the thymus?

Purple: cortex

Yellow: medulla

Green: Corticomedullary junction

54

What is storedi n the coricomedullary junciton?*

HEVs! High endothelial venules

55

What is this structure? (simple labeling) in the thymus- also what is happening at this area regarding lymphocytes?*

HEVs location

Lymphocytes exit and enter blood here! this is after exiting the capillary bed!!!

56

What is indicated? What is it a visual clue of?

Thymic (Hassall's) corpuscles made up of old epithelial reticular cells - indicates you are in thymus 

57

What is going on here? Explain.

Pre T lymphocytes get to thymus via blood stream thru HEVs

 

Here is an artery in red arrow --> leads to capillary bed in yellow arrow --> pre T comes from bone arrow comes via arterial system and enters thymus

58

What are 2 things we need during the education of T lymphocytes?

1. Clean evnironemtn

2. Barries to isolate pre T cells from unwanted antigens

59

What is the blood-thymus barrier?

Btwn blood vessel lumen and pre T cells

60

What do each arrow represent?

REd: Blood vessel and endotehlium

Balack: Basal lamina (endo)

Blue (macrophages)

Black 2 : Basal lamina (epithelial reticular cells)

Yellow: Epithelial reticular cells

61

Pre T cells descend thru ___ as they are selectted for immunocempetance

Cortex

62

Only ___ % of pre T cells become immunocompetant T cells

2%

63

There are 2 classifications of llymphoid organs?

1. No nodlules

2. Nodules

64

Which lymphoid organ has no nodules?

Primary lymphoid organs

(bone marrow: makes all B and T and educates B, Thymus educates T cells)

65

Which lymphoid organ has nodules? 

Secondary lymphoid organs

(lmyphoid tissue, lymph nodes, spleen = battle ground of work)

66

What are lymphoid nodules?

Temporary reaction of T and B lymphocytes to a specific antigen

67

What type of arrangment is this in lymphoid nodules?

Unchallenged: diffuse arrangement

68

What type of arrangment is this in lymphoid nodules? what do the red dotted lines indicate? What do the yellow dotted lines indicate?

Challenged: nodular arrangement

Red dotted lines: secondary nodules

Yellowe dotted lines: primary nodules

69

What are the secondary lymphoid odules?

Indicates B lymphocyte activation and proliferation

70

Inside the secondary lymphoid nodule, what is the green dots indicating? what about hte black dots? What about the yellow arrows?

Green: Germinal center ("generation" area, plasma c, B memory c)

Black: Corona (exiting effector/memory cells, "unchallenged" B lymphocytes)

 

Yellow arrows: Helper T lymphocytes surround nodules- help activate B lymphocytes

71

What are the 3 secondary lymphoid organs and what do each do?

1. Diffuse lymphoid tissue and tonsils (survey epithelial barriers)

2. Lymph nodes (filter (survey) lymph)

3. Spleen (filter (survey) blood)

72

What is the diffuse lymphoid tissue also known as?

MALT

Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue 

73

What is this structure? What are 5 functions?

Tonsil that is a diffuse lymphoid tissue

1. Found under epith linings

2. No cortex, medulla

3. Not surrounded by CT capsule

4. Randomyl packed lymphocytes

5. Nodules form when challenged

74

What is the function of MALT?

Protect epithelial barrier

75

Is this primary or secondary? Education or battle? What do each arrow indicate? What is its significance?**

Secondary, battle

Red: "drity" lymph enters thru several AFFERENT lymph vessels

Green: "cleaner" lymph enters thru 1-2 EFFERENT lymph vessels

*Significance: only organ that filters lymph

76

Label the colors on this lymph node

Blue: Capsule

Yellow: Cortex

Green: Medulla

Red: Hilum

77

The hilum on the lymph node is a fissure where ____ enter and exit . It is also where ________ vessels exit

Blood vessels enter

Efferent lymph vessels

78

What is this structure a closeup of? What does it support and what does it do?

Reticular tissue

Sieve-like mesh supports parenchema

Mechanical filtering

79

What is this a picture of? 

Superficial cortex

 

80

What is the deep cortex under? What do they not have? 

Under the nodular cortex, there are no nodules in the deep cortex

81

What is located in the deep cortex?

HEVs

82

Most lymphocytes enter nodes here

83

What does the superficial cortex contain? What do those contain?

Nodules

Nodules containe B lymphocytes

84

What is the superficial cortex a site of?

B cell activation and proliferation

85

Most lymphocytes enter the node here and exit _____

Diapedesis

86

What does the parenchyma form in the lymph node?

Medullary cords

87

What does the medulla of the lymph node contain?

Contain B cells, macrophages, and plasma cells

88

The cords in the medulla are seaparted by ?

Medullary sinuses

89

Plasma cells secrete antibodes into ?

Sinuses

90

What are these areas in the lymph node indicated? (name)

Sinuses

91

Sinuses are lined with _____, carry _____

Lined with endothelium, carry lymph

92

What is this structure of lymph node sinus? What 2 things does it do?

Lumina spanned by reticular fibers

Slows down flow

Allows APCs to filter antigens

93

General flow of lymph?

Afferent lymph vessel --> lymph goes thru the sbucapsular, trabecular, medullar sinuses--> efferent lymph vessels

94

What is the spleen/

Largest single lymphoid organ in the body

95

Fetal vs adult funcions of spleen?

Fetal: hematopoiesis (creating new cells in body)

Adult: 1. Filter blood of antigens, 2. Remove aged RBCs

96

What is this structure? What do arrow indicate? 

Spleen

White: CT Capsule

Yellow? Lymphoid nodules (secondary lymphoid organ)

 

97

The spleen does not have ________ or _____ and cannot _______

Does not have cortex or medulla (nodules randomly scattered)

Cannot filter lymph (no afferent lymph vessels)

98

In spleen? what is red pulp vs white pulp?

Red pulp: removed aged RBCs (acidophilic)

White pulp: adaptive immune response (strongly basophilic)

99

The splenic artery brings blood to?

Spleen

100

Splenic artery divdes as trabeular arteries into _______ and then branches to _______and then dump blood into red pulp, which is not directly conected to veins- this allows for "open circulation"

Central arterioles

Penicillar arterioles

101

What activates white pulp?

APCs

102

In spleen are there always nodules?

Yes- constantly fighting antigens

103

White pump conists of ____ around central artierole

T and B cells

104

What can be seen from this structure? Yellow arrow and white dotted line?

White pulp structure

Yellow arrow: T cells surround central arteriole

Periarterial lymphoid sheath (PALS)- T cells