L44-45: Urinary System I & II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L44-45: Urinary System I & II Deck (97)
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1

What are the organs of the urinary system? (4)

1. Kidneys 2. Ureters 3. Urinary bladder 4. Urethra

2

What is the primary function of the kidney?

To conserve body fluid, and electrolytes and remove metabolic waste

3

Kidneys receive ___% of cardiac output?

25%

4

What does the erythropoietin do in the kindey?

Help increase RBC creation

5

What does renin do in the kidney?

Maintain blood pressure

6

What vitamin does the kidney activate?

Vit D

7

What kind of morphology does the cattle kidney have?

Multilobar with lobar surface

8

What kind of morphology does the pig kidney have?

Multipyramidal with smooth surface

9

What is the morphology of a dog kidney?

Unipyramidal with smooth surface

10

What three things make up the renal hilum?

- Renal artery (in) - Renal vein (out) - Renal pelvis (out)

11

What does the renal capsule do?

Protective outer covering that overlies the renal cortex

12

What two layers make up the renal capsule?

- Outer capsule layer and Inner capsule layer

13

In the two layers that make up the renal capsule, what is their function?

Outer capsule layer: dense CT, protection Inner capsule layer: myofibroblasts, resists pressure changes

14

What does the green line indicate? Red line?

Green: Renal cpasule

Red: Renal cortex

15

What structure does each color represent?

Red: Capsule

Green: Cortex

Orange: Outer zone

Purple: Inner zone

16

What are the colored parts of the kidney? What do they  all do conclusively?

Blue: Minor clayx

Pink: Major calyx

Yellow: Renal pelvis

Green: Ureter

 

They all drain urine from the kidney

17

What two things make up the renal lobe?

Renal pyramid and adjacent renal cortex (and column tissue)

18

Each renal lobe drains into ______

1 minor calyx

19

What is a renal paillae?

Projection into the minor clayx

20

What structure is indicated by the red arrow? What is its function?

Area cribrose: surface w/ openings of papillary duts

21

What is this a structure of?

Renal papillae

22

What are structures (2) associated with blood flow?

- Glomerulus

-Fenestrated capillaries

23

As far as blood flow in the glomerulous, where is blood going to and going away from? (2 different arterioles)

Going to : Afferent arteriole

Away from: Efferent arteriole

24

What type of glomerular capillaries will be utilized? 

Type II

25

What is this a structure of?

Glomerulus

26

Label all red arrows starting from right corner going counterclockwise (there are really 3 structures, but a repetition of each); what do all these structures indicate?

RIGHT SIDE: Efferent arteriole, afferent arteriole, afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, LEFT SIDE: Glomerulus

All indicate BRANCHES OF THE RENAL ARTERY

27

2 functions/ "parts" of the efferent arteriole- what are they called? (not as easy-sounding as you think)

TOP: Peritubular cortical capillary network

BOTTOM: Vasa recta

28

What is the function of the peritubular cortical capillary network ? (3)

1. Nourish tissue

2. Reabsorption of ultrafiltrate in cortex

3. Endothelium secretes erythropoietin

29

What is the function of the vasa recta? (2)

1. Descend to medulla

2. Regulate urine cc (counter current xchange)

30

Where does urine begin as?

Ultrafilturate (glomerular filtrate) of blood plasma

31

What does the urine contain and what does it maintain?

Contains metabolic waste products

Maintains water and electrolyte balance

32

What is the uriniferous tubule?

Functional unit that transports and modifies fluid to form urine

33

What makes up the uriniferous tubule?

Made of a nephron and collecting duct

34

What two parts are part of the nephron?

1. Renal corpuscle

2. Renal tubule

35

What kind of ducts are associated with the nephron?

Collecting ducts

36

What makes up the uriniferous tubule? (2)

Nephron + collecting tubules and ducts

37

What makes up a nephron? (2)

 

Renal corpuscle + renal tubule

 

38

What makes up a renal corpuscle? (2)

Glomerulus + glomerular capsule

 

39

What makes up a renal tubule? (3)

Proximal tubule + thin loop of Henle + distal tubule

40

There are two types of nephrons- what are they?

1. Juxtamedullary

2. Cortical

41

Describe the juxtamedullary nephron and its function

Long-looped, performs most urine concentration

42

Describe the cortical nephron and its function

Short-looped, performs most filtration/ absorption (85%)

43

What are the two directional "poles" assocaited with the renal corpuscle? What do each do?

1. Vascular Pole- afferent arteriole enters, efferent exits

2. Urinary pole- leads to renal tubule

44

What are the four long steps of how blood passes through the glomerulus?

1. Blood enters glomerulus via afferent arteriole at the vascular pole

2. Some blood plasma will exit the glomerulus thru the glomerular filtration barrier and enter the urinary space as ultrafiltrate

3. Ultrafiltraute will enter the renal tubule at the end of the urinary pole

4. Remaining blood will leave the glomerulus via efferent arterioles at the vascular pole

45

Glomerulus invaginates into the ________

Glomerular capsule

46

What is this a structure of?

Glomerulus

47

What layer of the glomerulus does the blue indicate? Green? What do each do?

Blue: Partietal layer- simple squamous epithelium

Green: Visceral layer- layer of podocytes that covers the glomerulus

48

In the renal corpuscle there are specialized cells that are indicated in brown and light pink around the blue. What are these two cells?

1. Mesangial cells

2. Podocytes

49

What are the functions of mesangial cells?

- Modified smooth mm cells

- Secrete mesangium (ECM- support)

- Regulate glomerular distension (contraction)

- Keep GFB clean (phagocytosis)

50

What is the function of podocytes?

- Form visceral layer of glomerular capsule

- Part of the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB)

51

What are the pedicles of the podocyte? (black line)

Interdigitating process of the pdocytes; can be contracted by podocyte to reduce GFR

52

What are filtration slits?

Gaps between pedicels spanned by a diaphragm

53

What are the 3 features of glomerular filtration barrier?

1. Endo cells of fenestrated capillaries (no diaphragms)

2. Thick basal lamina with GAGs

3. Podocyte filtration slits spanned by a slit diaphragm

54

The pass of the glomerular filtration barrier is restricted by what 2 things?*

1. Size of openings

2. Charge of GAGs

55

What three parts are needed to make a nephron? Colors

blue:  Proximal tubule

Green : Thin loop of henle

Red : Distal tubule

56

What portions do the proximal tubule and distal tubule have in common?

- Convulted portion

- Straight portion

57

What is the loop of henle made up of? (3)

Proximal straight tubule + thin loop of Henle + distal straight tubule

58

What is the main function of the proximal tubule? (reabsorpt, secretion, has what portions)

- Reasborption into peritubular capillaries

- Calcitriol secretion

- Has convuluted and straight portions

59

In this TEM of the promixal tubule, what things are indiciated? (list as much)..What do these features facilitiate? (2)***

-Simple cuboidal epithe

-Microvilli LOTS!! (brush border)

- Lateral and basal folds

-Mitochon, vesicles, lysosomes

 

These features facilitate RAPID ION AND FLUID REABSORPTION!!!

60

What is this structure and what are characteristics of it? (3)*

Proximal Tubule
No clear cell borders due to folds

Irregular lumne due to brush border

Often star shaped*!

61

What is the main function of the thin loop of Henle?

Concentration of urine (countercurrent exchange with vasa recta)

62

What is indicated by this black arrow on the left? What do the cells of those look like (2 things)

Interstitium GAG-rich ECM, interstitial cells (these look like fibroblast and macrophage cells)

63

What is the main function of the distal tubule?

Selective secretion and reabsorption ("fine-tunes" ultrafiltrate)

64

What is the structure? What does this TEM indicate (list all)? (4)

Distal tubule

-Simple cuboidal epithelium

- No brush border (few short microvilli)

-Lateral and basal folds

-Abundant mitochondria

65

What do features of the distal tubule facilitate?*

Selective ion transport

66

What does this black arrow on this LM indicate?

Distal tubule

-No clear cell borders (folds)

- Smaller, more regular lumen than PT

67

What does the left question mark indicate? Right quesion mark?*

Left: Promixal tubule

Right: Distal tubule

68

What is the DISTAL TUBULE JUXTAGLOMELULAR APPARATUS?**

"Sensor" that helps maintain sodium homeostasis and regulates blood pressure

69

What two types of cells are indicated in this structure? (left black arrow, right black arrow)

Left black arrow: Juxtaglomerular cells

Right black arrow: Macula densa cells

70

What is the purpose of the juxtagomerular cells (granular cells)  on the distal tubule?

Modified smooth muscle cells that store/ secrete renin

71

What is the purpose of the Macular densa cells (granular cells)  on the distal tubule?

Sensitive to Na lvls in ultrafilturae; signal renin secretion

72

What do the left black arrow and right black arrow indicate?

Left: juxtaglomerular cells

Right: Macular densa cells

73

In the distal convoluted tubule, what happens to Sodium lvls?

Decreases

74

Macul densa cells --> _____ --> juxtaglomerular cells to secrete the renin!*

Extraglomerular mesangial cells

75

When the juxtaglomerular cells secrete renin, what two things happen?

1. Increases blood pressure (vaso constrict)

2. Increases blood volume (renal absorption)

76

What is this structure? Main functions?

Cortical and medullary collecting duct; 

further "fine-tunes" ultrafiltrate (light and dark cells)

- Cuboidal epithlium, large regular lumen with distinct cell borders

77

What is this structure? Main function?

Papillary ducts (of Bellini)

Conduct urine into minor calyces

78

What is this a stucture of? (clinical)

Kidney cyst caused by tubular obstruction

79

What is the transitional epithelium also called?

Uroepithelium

80

What are the 3 features of uroepithelium?

1. Highly distensible; unique to urinary system

2. Stratified, impermeable to water and salts (urine)

3. Varies in appearance based on functional state

81

What is each structure indicating and why?

Left: Undistended lumen- EMPTY

Right: distended lumen- FULL

82

What type of cells are on the 3 layers?

Stratified epithelium cells

Surface cells

Basal cells

83

What is significant about the top stratified layer of the uroepithelium?

- number of layers increases proximal-distal (~3 in calyces, ~6 in urinary bladder)

84

What is significant about the surface cell layer of the uroepithelium? (types of cells, and indication of undistended and distended cells)

Umbreall, dome, basket cells

-Undistended: round, bulge into lumen

-Distended: flattened

85

What is this structure?

Urinary bladder

86

What are some features of the urinary bladder? (4)

- Highly distensible; rugae (macroscopic folds)

- Thicker mucosa

- Muscularis (detrusor muscle): multidirecitonal

- Serosa adjacent to peritonal reflections

87

As far as the detrusor muscle (muscularis) of the urinary bladder, how would we know if it is in para or sympathetic?

Para: squeeze to let it expell

Symp: release sphincter, to exit body

88

In urinary bladder cancer, the lining of urinary tract are highly ______ and are in contact with chemicals excreted

Mitotic

89

Where is the most common site of urinary system tumorigenesis?

Transitional epithelium of the urinary bladder

90

What does this blue box on male urethra indicate and describe tissue type?

Prostatic urethra:

transitional epithelium

91

What does this purple box on male urethra indicate and describe tissue type?

Pelvic urethra:

stratified/pseudostrtified columnar epithelium

92

What does this pink box on male urethra indicate and describe cell type?

Penile urethra:

Strat squamous epith (nonkeratinized) - inside spongy body

93

What is the tissue type indicated in blue box on female urethra?

transitional epithelium

94

What is this tissue type in the pink box indicating on female urethra indicating?

Strat squamous epith (nonkeratinized) - inside spongy body

95

What is a clear difference between male and female urethra?

Female has shorter urethra than males

96

What is this circled? What does it do?

Paraurethral mucus gland

open to urethra of both males and females

97

What is the green box? What does it do?

Paraurethral mucus gland

open to urethra of both males and females